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coursehero_TestStudy Guide

coursehero_TestStudy Guide - Chapter 1(1 What do you need...

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Chapter 1 (1) What do you need to have a sustainable society? What is sustainable development? Understand the components and important of natural capital, then recognize that many human activities degrade natural capital by using normally renewable resources faster than nature can renew. Environmental sustainability = economic sustainability Sustainable Development: Environmentally Sustainable Development asks people to live without degrading the environment or disregarding future generations (i.e. deforestation induced erosion in Madagascar) (2) What is natural capital/natural resources? Be able to list them! Natural capital: Natural resources and natural services make up the earth’s natural capital support and sustain the earth’s life and economies. Natural capital = natural resources + natural services Natural resources: air, water, soil, land, life (biodiversity), nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand), renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows), nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels, nuclear power) (3) What are natural services? - be able to name them! Air purification, water purification, soil renewal, nutrient recycling, food production, pollination, grassland renewal, forest renewal, waste treatment, climate control, population control(species interactions), pest control (4) What is an ecosystem? Ecosystems are communities of plants, animals, and microbes along with the abiotic components such as soil and water. Some ecosystems appear to be lifeless or useless such as deserts, but the resulting community (cactus, snakes, etc.) is sustainable given the available abiotic components - with water being the limiting factor!! (5) What is the link between biodiversity and natural services? Relationship between Biodiversity and Ecosystem (ie, Natural) Services: Certain species provide ecosystem services Examples are species that protect soil from erosion (grass), influencing the characteristics of the atmosphere (trees), transform energy from the sun into food energy (plants), and modify the ecosystem to allow other species to exist (elephants). In other words, there is a link between biodiversity and natural capital (6) What perpetual vs. nonrenewable vs. renewable resources? Can you differentiate between them? Perpetual: Direct solar energy, winds tides flowing water. Nonrenewable: fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal), metallic minerals (iron, copper, aluminum), non-metallic minerals (clay, sand, phosphates). Renewable: fresh air, fresh water, fertile soil, plants and animals (biodiversity). Renewable – can be renewed on a time scale comparable to our lifespan – typically in 0-100 years. ). Trees are a good example of a renewable resource. While biodiversity is renewable, very often the time scale is on the order of 1000s of years!! This does imply that new species can be created in that time period (that may take millions of years
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Non-renewable – cannot be renewed in our lifetime. Examples are mineral resources and our typical energy sources: coal and oil. The earth processes that have created these resources are still operating, but on a very slow scale.
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coursehero_TestStudy Guide - Chapter 1(1 What do you need...

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