coursehero_TestStudy Guide3

coursehero_TestStudy Guide3 - Chapter 7 (1) What is the...

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Chapter 7 (1) What is the difference between high input vs low input agricultural practices? industrialized agriculture (high input) versus 20% from subsistence agriculture (low input). Industrialized agriculture is where large amounts of fossil fuel, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and single cover crops are used – this is practiced on ¼ of all cropland. Subsistence – produce barely enough to feed your family, shifting and nomadic – but maybe this is all you need (2) What is the difference between industrialized vs. Traditional intensive agriculture. In particular what is the difference in the amount of energy it takes to produce food for both. There are two types of traditional agriculture Both types use human and animal labor to produce food Traditional intensive - produce enough for yourself and plenty to sell – uses fertilizer and water (irrigation) to increase crop yield Subsistence – produce barely enough to feed your family, shifting and nomadic – but maybe this is all you need…. . Traditional Intensive Farming Agribusiness in the US Green revolution at work But we use more energy to produce the food than we get from it – not sustainable! We use about 10 units of energy (fossil fuels) to produce 1 unit of food energy if you consider the entire food production, processing, delivery and preparation system In the US, food travels an average of 1500 miles from the farm to your table Traditional intensive farming uses 1 unit of energy to get 10 units of food energy (3) How can Traditional intensive agriculture be so much more sustainable? Interplanting. Pg 152 (4) Which activities can accelerate soil erosion? Logging Ranching Overgrazing Burning Off road use Development Loss of Topsoil (5) Given all of our technological advances, why do we still have soil erosion problems in the US? Effective soil conservation is practiced today on only half of US agricultural land and on only half of the country’s most erodible cropland. (6) What are the problems caused by over- irrigation? (Salinization and waterlogging) Pg 154. Waterlogging is caused when irrigation rate exceeds infiltration rate . Salinization: Repeated annual applications of irrigation water in dry climates lead to the gradual accumulation of salts in the upper soil layers. (7) What did the Green revolutions require farmers to do? Does it have limitations? To produce more food by farming more land or getting higher yields per unit of area from existing cropland. Without huge amounts of fertilizer and water, most green revolution crop varieties produce yields that are no higher than those from traditional strains. And with their high inputs of water, fertilizer,
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and pesticides, they cost too much for most subsistence farmers in developing countries. Continuing to increase fertilizer, water, and pesticide inputs will eventually produce no additional increase in crop yields. (8)
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coursehero_TestStudy Guide3 - Chapter 7 (1) What is the...

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