Chapter6 - Chapter 6 Voc. Proteins- compounds composed of...

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Proteins- compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms, arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. Some amino acids also contain sulfur atoms. Amino Acids- building blocks of proteins. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom -Some researchers refer to essential amino acids as indispensable and to nonessential amino acids as dispensable Amino= containing nitrogen Essential Amino Acids- amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs Conditionally essential amino acid- an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body’s ability to produce it. Peptide bond - a bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another forming a link in a protein chain. Dipeptide- two amino acids bonded together Tripeptide- three amino acids bonded together Polypeptide- many (ten or more) amino acids bonded together Hemogoblin- the globular protein of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body Denaturation- the change in a proteins shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents -The inactive form of an enzyme is called a proenzyme or a zymogen -A string of four to nine amino acids is an oligopeptide (few) Pepsin- a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. Pepsin is secreted in an inactive form, pepsinogen, which is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach Proteases- enzymes that hydrolyze protein Peptidase- a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds -The study of the body’s proteins is called proteomics
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This note was uploaded on 07/08/2011 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Po during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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Chapter6 - Chapter 6 Voc. Proteins- compounds composed of...

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