CH2_outline - 1 CH2 Overview A Chemical Connection to...

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1 CH2 Overview A Chemical Connection to Biology Biology is a multidisciplinary science Living organisms are subject to basic laws of physics and chemistry Elements and Compounds • Matter is made up of elements • An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions • A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio • A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements Essential Elements of Life • About 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter • Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur • Trace elements are those required by an organism in minute quantities An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms • Each element consists of unique atoms • An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Subatomic Particles • Atoms are composed of subatomic particles • Relevant subatomic particles include: Neutrons (no electrical charge) Protons (positive charge) Electrons (negative charge) Neutrons and protons form the atomic nucleus Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus Neutron mass and proton mass are almost identical and are measured in daltons Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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CH2_outline - 1 CH2 Overview A Chemical Connection to...

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