CH4 - CH4 Carbon The Backbone of Life Although cells are...

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1 CH4 – Carbon The Backbone of Life Although cells are 70–95% water, the rest consists mostly of carbon-based compounds Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon The Formation of Bonds with Carbon With four valence electrons, carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms • This tetravalence makes large, complex molecules possible In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a tetrahedral shape However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the molecule has a flat shape Fig. 4-3 Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model (a) Methane (b) Ethane (c) Ethene (ethylene)
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2 Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Carbon chains vary in length and shape Fig. 4-5a (a) Length Ethane Propane Fig. 4-5b (b) Branching Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane)
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3 Fig. 4-5c (c) Double bonds 1-Butene 2-Butene Fig. 4-5d (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy
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