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CH11_outline - 1 2 3 CH11 The Cellular Internet Cell...

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1 CH11: The Cellular Internet Cell Communication • Cell-to-cell communication is essential for multicellular organisms • Biologists have discovered some universal mechanisms of cellular regulation • The combined effects of multiple signals determine cell response External signals are converted to responses within the cell • Microbes are a window on the role of cell signaling in the evolution of life Evolution of Cell Signaling • A signal transduction pathway is a series of steps by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response • Signal transduction pathways convert signals on a cell’s surface into cellular responses Local and Long-Distance Signaling • Cells in a multicellular organism communicate by chemical messengers • Animal and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells • In local signaling, animal cells may communicate by direct contact, or cell-cell recognition • In many other cases, animal cells communicate using local regulators, messenger molecules that travel only short distances • In long-distance signaling, plants and animals use chemicals called hormones The Three Stages of Cell Signaling Reception Transduction Response 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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2 Response RECEPTION: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape • The binding between a signal molecule (ligand) and receptor is highly specific • A shape change in a receptor is often the initial transduction of the signal • Most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins RECEPTION: A signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape • Most water-soluble signal molecules bind to specific sites on receptor proteins in the plasma membrane
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