CH12_outline - 1 CH12 The Key Roles of Cell Division The...

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1 CH12: The Key Roles of Cell Division • The ability of organisms to reproduce distinguishes living things from nonliving matter • The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells, or cell division • In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism • Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for: Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division: genetically identical daughter cells • Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA • A special type of division produces nonidentical daughter cells (gametes, or sperm and egg cells) Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material • All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell’s genome • A genome can consist of a single DNA molecule (common in prokaryotic cells) or a number of DNA molecules (common in eukaryotic cells) • DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes • Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division • In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense • Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids, which 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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2 separate during cell division • The centromere is where the two chromatids are most closely attached • Eukaryotic cell division consists of: Mitosis, the division of the nucleus Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm • Gametes are produced by a variation of cell division called
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CH12_outline - 1 CH12 The Key Roles of Cell Division The...

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