Chapter_2 - 2. Nonpolar and Polar 3. ELECTRONEGATIVITY: The...

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Chapter 2 Chemical Context of Life I. “7 Wonders of Cell Biochemistry” C (carbon) H (hydrogen) N (nitrogen) O (oxygen) P (phosphorous) S (sulfur) I (ions) Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl II. Reactivity of CHNOPS a. Atomic structure of CHNOPS i. Neutrons, protons, electrons ii. Atomic number = # of protons = identity of element iii. Atomic weight = {(#protons) + (#neutrons)}x 1 Dalton = X Daltons iv. 1 Dalton = v. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons III. Bonding a. Covalent bonding i. SHARING of paired valence electrons 1. valence = outer shell or outer orbital
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Nonpolar and Polar 3. ELECTRONEGATIVITY: The affinity of one atom for another b. Ionic bonding = attraction of opposite charges forming SALTS i. Ionic bonding occurs when the electronegativity of the two atoms is dramatically different ii. NOT Sharing … electron TRANSFER iii. Creates IONS 1. Cation (positive) 2. Anion (negative) c. Hydrogen bonding = weak BUT VERY IMPORTANT i. Defined: “hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative element forms an ATTRACTION to another electronegative element in another compound”...
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