Chapter4 - iii. Double bonds (-ane to –ene) iv. Rings...

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Chapter 4 Carbon I. Life is essentially CARBON + WATER II. Hydrocarbons = molecules consisting only of Carbon + hydrogen III. Carbon based molecules MUST BE DIVERSE a. VARIATIONS in hydrocarbon skeletons (example: 6 carbon hexane) i. Length ii. Isomerization 1. BRANCHING: Structural isomer (e.g., C 4 H 10 = butane OR isobutane) 2. Geometric isomers (due to rigidity of double bonds) X X H X C=C vs. C=C H H X H 3. Enantiomers =molecules that are mirror images of one another. E.g., the arrangement of chemical groups around an asymmetric carbon atom … such as in ALANINE See figure 4.6 (c ) on page 56 in your book.
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Unformatted text preview: iii. Double bonds (-ane to –ene) iv. Rings (cyclo-) 1. cyclohexane 2. if double bonds = benzene b. addition of FUNCTIONAL GROUPS i. hydroxyl Æ alcohol (e.g., hexanol) ii. carbonyl Æ aldehydes and ketones (e.g., hexanal, or hexanone) iii. carboxyl Æ carboxylic acids (e.g., hexanoic acid) iv. amino Æ amines (e.g., hexamine) v. sulhydryl Æ thiols (e.g., hexanethiol) vi. phosphate Æ organic phosphates (e.g., hexanol phosphate) NOTE: The elements included in these groups (CHNOPS) NOTE: amino groups function as a base; carboxyl groups function as an acid...
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