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Lecture_4_June_27_Bio_30

Lecture_4_June_27_Bio_30 - F emale Sexual Anat omy...

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Female Sexual Anatomy, Physiology and Health Issues Internal Structures Underlying structures External Sexual Anatomy Menstrual Cycle External Sexual Anatomy Breasts Lumps and cancer Vulva  Other Health Issues Photo Warning – Nudity this lecture.
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Ovaries Paired glands homologous to the testes Produce Gametes – secondary oocytes that develop into mature ova (eggs) after fertilization Hormones including progesterone, estrogens, inhibin and relaxin Series of ligaments hold ovaries in place Broad ligament – part of parietal peritoneum Ovarian ligament – anchors ovaries to uterus Suspensory ligament – attaches ovaries to pelvic wall
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Relative positions of the ovaries, the uterus, and supporting ligaments
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Histology of ovary Germinal epithelium – covers surface of ovary Does not give rise to ova – cells that arise from yolk sac and migrate to ovaries do Tunica albuginea Ovarian cortex Ovarian follicles and stromal cells Ovarian medulla Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
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Histology of ovary Ovarian follicles – in cortex and consist of oocytes in various stages of development Surrounding cells nourish developing oocyte and secrete estrogens as follicle grows Mature (graafian) follicle – large, fluid-filled follicle ready to expel secondary oocyte during ovulation Corpus luteum – remnants of mature follicle after ovulation Produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin and inhibin until it degenerates into corpus albicans
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Histology of the ovary
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Histology of the ovary
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Oogenesis and follicular development Formation of gametes in ovary Oogenesis begins before females are born Essentially same steps of meiosis as spermatogenesis During early fetal development, primordial (primitive) germ cells migrate from yolk sac to ovaries Germ cells then differentiate into oogonia – diploid (2n) stem cells Before birth, most germ cells degenerate – atresia A few develop into primary oocytes that enter meiosis I during fetal development Each covered by single layer of flat follicular cells – primordial follicle About 200,000 to 2,000,000 at birth, 40,00 remain at puberty, and around 400 will mature during a lifetime
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Follicular development Each month from puberty to menopause, FSH and LH stimulate the development of several primordial follicles Usually, only one reaches ovulation Primordial follicles develop into primary follicles Primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells Forms zona pellucida between granulosa cells and primary oocyte Stromal cells begin to form theca folliculi Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles Theca differentiates into theca interna secreting estrogens and theca externa Granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid in antrum Innermost layer of granulosa cells attaches to zona pellucida forming corona radiata
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Ovarian follicles
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Ovarian follicles
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Ovarian follicles
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Ovarian follicles
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