Lec13 Bonding Theories - Bonding Theories 1 Polar and...

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LMALaput Chemistry 16 Lecture 13 Bonding Theories 1. Polar and Nonpolar covalent bonds 2. The continuous range of bonding types 3. Dipole moments 4. Valence Shell Pair Repulsion Theory 5. Molecular Geometry & Electron pair Geometry POLAR AND NONPOLAR BONDS •Covalent bonds in which the electrons are shared equally are designated as nonpolar covalent bonds. Nonpolar covalent bonds have a symmetrical charge distribution. •To be nonpolar the two atoms involved in the bond must be the same element to share equally. •This property arises from because the elements forming the covalent bond have a little or no difference in their electronegativity. Some examples of polar covalent bonds. H F Electronegativities 2.1 4.0 Difference= 1.9 very polar bond •Shown below is an electron density map of HF. –Blue areas indicate low electron density. –Red areas indicate high electron density. •Polar molecules have a separation of centers of negative and positive charge, an asymmetric charge distribution. Compare HF to HI. H I Electronegativities 2.1 2.5 Difference= 0.4 slightly polar bond Polar molecules can be attracted by magnetic and electric fields. Blue + Red - DIPOLE MOMENTS •Molecules whose centers of positive and negative charge do not coincide, have an asymmetric charge distribution, and are polar. –These molecules have a dipole moment. •The dipole moment has the symbol
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Lec13 Bonding Theories - Bonding Theories 1 Polar and...

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