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Lec14 Hybridization - BONDING THEORIES(part 2 1 Valence...

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LMALaput Chemistry 16 Lecture 14 BONDING THEORIES (part 2) 1. Valence Bond Theory 2. Hybridization of Orbitals VALENCE BOND THEORY Covalent bonds are formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals. Atomic orbitals on the central atom can mix and exchange their character with other atoms in a molecule. Process is called hybridization . Hybrid Orbitals have the same shapes as predicted by VSEPR. The Central Themes of VB Theory Basic Principle A covalent bond forms when the orbitals of two atoms overlap and the overlap region, which is between the nuclei, is occupied by a pair of electrons. The two wave functions are in phase so the amplitude increases between the nuclei. Themes A set of overlapping orbitals has a maximum of two electrons that must have opposite spins. The greater the orbital overlap, the stronger (more stable) the bond. The valence atomic orbitals in a molecule are different from those in isolated atoms. There is a hybridization of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals. Hybrid Orbitals Key Points The number of hybrid orbitals obtained equalsthe number of atomic orbitals mixed. Thetypeof hybrid orbitals obtained varieswith the types of atomic orbitals mixed. Types of Hybrid Orbitals e - group EG Atomic Orbital Mixed from Valence Shell of Central Atom Hybrid- ization 2 linear 1 s, 1p sp 3 trigonal planar 1s, 2p sp 2 4 tetrahedral 1s,3p sp 3 5 trigonal bipyramidal 1s, 3p, 1d sp 3 d 6 octahedral 1s, 3p, 2d sp 3 d 2 Linear Electronic Geometry: AB 2
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