Lec16 Liquids and its properties(IMFA)

Lec16 Liquids and its properties(IMFA) - LIQUID AND ITS...

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LMALaput Chemistry 16 Lecture 16 LIQUID AND ITS PROPERTIES 1. Overview of physical and chemical changes 2. Intermolecular forces of attraction 3. Properties of Liquids 4. Heat Transfer involving Liquids Macroscopic Comparison of Gases, Liquids and Solids State Shape and Volume Compressibility Ability to flow Gas Conforms to shape and volume of container High High Liquid Conforms to shape of container; volume limited by surface Very low Moderate Solid Maintains its own shape and volume Almost none Almost none KINETIC MOLECULAR DESCRIPTION OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS •If we compare the strengths of interactions among particles and the degree of ordering of particles, we see that Gases < Liquids < Solids MOLECULAR FORCES OF ATTRACTION INTERMOLECULAR Forces –Refer to the forces between individual particles (atoms, ions, molecules of a substance) INTRAMOLECULAR Forces –Refer to the covalent and ionic bonds within the compound. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES OF ATTRACTION 1. Ion-ion interactions –The force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions is governed by Coulomb’s law. ± ²± ´ )(³ µ ) · q- and q+ : ion charges d : distance between the ions Coulomb’s law determines: 1. The melting and boiling points of ionic compounds. 2. The solubility of ionic compounds. •Example 13-1: Arrange the following ionic compounds in the expected order of increasing melting and boiling points. NaF, CaO, CaF2 Na + F - < Ca 2+ F - 2 < Ca 2+ O 2- 2. Dipole-dipole interactions –Permanent dipole-dipole interactions occur between polar covalent molecules due to the attraction of the δ+ atoms of one molecule to the δ-atoms of another molecule. 3. H-bonding –Hydrogen bonds are a special case of very strong dipole-dipole interaction. They are NOT chemical bonds. –Strong hydrogen bonding occurs among polar covalent molecules containing one of the three small, highly electronegative elements: F, O, or N .
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2011 for the course SCIENCE 16 taught by Professor Uperg during the Spring '11 term at University of the Philippines Diliman.

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Lec16 Liquids and its properties(IMFA) - LIQUID AND ITS...

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