Lec21 Acids and Bases - ACIDS AND BASES Chapter Outline 1....

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LMALaput Chemistry 16 Lecture 21 ACIDS AND BASES Chapter Outline 1. Titration 2. Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases 3. The Hydronium Ion 4. Bronsted-Lowry Theory 5. The Autoionizationof Water 6. pH scale 7. Amphoterism 8. The Lewis Theory 9. Relative strengths of Acids and Bases 10. Acid-Base reactions in aqueous solutions TITRATIONS Titrations are a method of determining the concentration of an unknown solution from the known concentration of a solution and solution reaction stoichiometry. a Acid + b Base → salt + water ± ²³´±µ¶·¸ ¹º»¼ ½³´¾¿À ¹º»¼ Á à ²³´±µ¶·¸ ĹÅÆ ½³´¾¿À ĹÅÆ ± ² ¹ ½ ¹ Á à ² Ä ½ Ä PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS ACIDS 1. They have a sour taste. 2. They change the colors of many indicators. –Acids turn blue litmus to red. 3. They react with metals to generate hydrogen, H 2(g) . 4. They react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form salts and water. 5. They react with salts of weaker acids to form the weaker acid and the salt of the stronger acid. 6. Acidic aqueous solutions conduct electricity. PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS BASES 1. They have a bitter taste. 2. They have a slippery feeling. 3. They change the colors of many indicators –Bases turn red litmus to blue. 4. They react with acids to form salts and water. 5. Aqueous basic solutions conduct electricity. ARRHENIUS THEORY •Svante Augustus Arrhenius first presented this theory of acids and bases in 1884. •Acids are substances that contain hydrogen and produce H + in aqueous solutions. •Two examples of substances that behave as Arrhenius acids: HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) HCO 2 H (aq) + H 2 O (l) → H 3 O + (aq ) + HCO - 2(aq) •Bases are substances that contain the hydroxyl, OH, group and produce hydroxide ions, OH-, in aqueous solutions. •Two examples of substances that behave as Arrhenius bases: NaOH → Na + (aq) + OH- (aq) Ca(OH) 2 Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) •Neutralization reactions are the combination of H + (or H 3 O + ) with OH - to form H 2 O. •Strong acids are acidic substances that ionize 100% in water. –List of aqueous strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO 4 , HNO 3 , HClO 4 , HClO 3 •Strong bases are basic substances that ionize 100% in water. –List of aqueous strong bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 •Neutralizationis defined as the reaction of H + and OH - ions to form H 2 O molecules, which is typical for strong acids and bases. •The formula unit equation is: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl + H 2 O •The total ionic equation is: H + (aq) + OH - (aq) → H 2 O •All strong acid-strong base reactions have this net ionic equation. Arrhenius acids and bases Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons, H+). HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Base: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions. NaOH → Na + (aq) + OH- (aq)
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2011 for the course SCIENCE 16 taught by Professor Uperg during the Spring '11 term at University of the Philippines Diliman.

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Lec21 Acids and Bases - ACIDS AND BASES Chapter Outline 1....

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