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1 The Endocrine System Part III: Thyroid and Adrenal Glands Lecture 41 Recommended reading: Sherwood 6 th edition Chapter 683-701 Sherwood 7 th edition Chapter 691-710 Topics to cover in these lectures The thyroid gland Anatomy Synthesis of thyroid hormones Regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis Major effects of thyroid hormone Pathophysiology of hyper- or hyposecretion of thyroid hormone Hypothyroidism in adults versus in newborns (cretinism) Hyperthyroidism The adrenal glands Anatomy: Layers of adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla Hormones of the adrenal medulla Hormones of the adrenal cortex: Cortisol is the major human glucocorticoid Control of cortisol secretion Sex steroids from the adrenal cortex (DHEA) Disorders of Adrenocortical Function Cortisol hypersecretion: Cushing’s syndrome Cortisol hyposecretion: Adrenogenital syndrome Adrenocortical insufficiency: Addison’s disease
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2 The Thyroid Gland and Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Fig. 19-1, p. 692 = thyroglobulin TG Tyr Tyr I- Dietary Iodine TG Tyr Tyr Phagocytosis, digestion, and release of T4 (~80%) and T3 (~20%) Thyroid follicular epithelial cell I- I I I I Na+/I- symporter (Most potent) TG Tyr Tyr I I I I TG Actions at target cells via nuclear receptor Developmental cues Major effects of thyroid hormone: 1. Metabolism (warm-blooded vertebrates) Important determinant of basal metabolic rate (BMR) Rate of O 2 consumption Calorigenic (heat producing)
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2011 for the course NPB 101 taught by Professor Fuller,charles/goldberg,jack during the Winter '08 term at UC Davis.

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