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Unformatted text preview: 1 of 8 organ systems we’re studying this quarter circulatory heart, blood vessels, blood transports nutrients, O 2 , CO 2 , wastes, electrolytes, & hormones throughout the body. digestiv e mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, smal intestine, large intestine, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gal bladder obtains nutrients, water, and electrolytes from the external environment and transfers them into the plasma; eliminates undigested food residues to the external environment. respiratory nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lung s obtains O 2 from and eliminates CO 2 to the external environment; helps regulate pH by adjusting the rate of removal of acid-forming CO 2 . renal kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra important in regulating the volume, electrolyte composition, and pH of the internal environment; removes wastes and excess water, salt, acid, and other electrolytes from the plasma and eliminates them in the urine. muscular skeletal muscles moves the bones to which the skeletal muscles are attached; heat-generating muscle contractions are important in temperature regulation nervous brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organ s controls rapid responses of the body through electrical signals and neurotransmitters; responsible for higher functions —e.g., consciousness, memory, creativity endocrin e hormone secreting tissues: hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, endocrine pancreas, parathyroids, gonads, kidneys, intestine, heart, thymus, pineal, skin using hormones secreted into the blood, controls processes that require duration rather than speed — e.g., metabolism, water balance, electrolyte balance reproductive male: testes, penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, bulbourethreal glands female: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, breasts essential for perpetuation of the species integumentary skin, hair, nail s serves as a protective barrier between the external environment and the remainder of the body; the sweat glands and adjustments in skin blood flow are important in temperature regulation skeletal bones, cartilage, joints supports and protects body parts; allows body movement; stores calcium (in the bone) immune white blood cells, thymus, bone marrow, tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, gut-associated lymph tissue, skin-associated lymph tissue protect against living and non-living foreign matter -- including microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites), foreign substances, and cancer cells; paves way for tissue repai r recall from lecture #1… more detailed list... 1) transport O 2 from lungs to respiring tissues 2) transport CO 2 from tissues to lungs 3) move nutrients from where they are absorbed or stored, to sites where they are used 4) move metabolites to sites of excretion (kidneys) or where they can be further used 5) transport hormones, vitamins, enzymes 6) distribute heat produced by metabolism 7) disperse heat by moving it to lungs, respiratory passages, & exposed body surfaces 8) homeostasis (e.g. acid-base balance) homeostasis (e....
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- Winter '08
- heart rate