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101D_FA09_wk07_doc2 - 101D week 7 doc2 Section Day Time...

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101D week 7, doc2 Section Day, Time: Thursday 1-3 Team: plutonium Manager:Ashly McClure Blogger: Scribe: Shomaila Shaikh Researcher: Marcus Garcia Dipole Moments ~ “Special times for polar bonds, polar molecules, and polar bears?” ~ GOALS Understand how electronegativity effects bond polarity Understand the concept of a dipole Understand how molecular shape determines a molecule’s dipole moment SKILLS Predict the overall dipole of a molecule from its molecular structure For bonds between homonuclear atoms, the electrons are shared equally between the two atoms forming a nonpolar covalent bond. The figure below illustrates this point. For bonds between heteronuclear atoms, unequal sharing of the electrons results due to an electronegativity difference between the atoms. As shown below, a polar covalent bond is formed. If the electronegativity difference is too large, the more electronegative atom will take the electron from the less electronegative atom, and an ionic bond is formed. INFORMATION Electronegativity – The relative ability of an atom to attract electron density toward itself when joined to another atom by a covalent bond Dipole – Partial positive and negative charges separated by a distance 1 δ + δ -
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Dipole moment – The product of the sizes of the partial charges in a dipole multiplied by the distance between them. The dipole moment is a measure of the polarity of a molecule. Dipole is measured in debyes (D), and 1 D = 3.34 × 10 -30 C·m). The Dipole Moment The charge separation in a polar covalent bond results in a dipole, and the dipole moment is a measure of the polarity of a bond. The dipole moment ( μ ), μ = q × d where q is the magnitude of the two charges (one positive and one negative) and d is the distance (vector) between the two charges, is a measurable physical quantity. It is important to note that dipole moment is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction (bold letters are used for vector quantities). The dipole (vector) is represented by an arrow where the head (point) of the arrow is pointing toward the center of negative charge and a plus sign is used to represent the center of positive charge. 1. Which molecule (A or B) has the larger dipole moment, and why? (Note d 2 > d 1 ) (Please number and put your answer in the top right hand corner of the whiteboard so we may check it.) B has the larger Dipole moment because the distance is larger, but the q changes 2. Which molecule (A or B) has the larger dipole moment, and why?
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