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Unformatted text preview: ARTS1811 ARTS1811 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: CONTINUITY & CHANGE LECTURE 1 20 JULY, 2009 INTRODUCTION Administration Administration Introduction to teaching staff Key dates What is this subject about? Resources Requirements Assessment Lecturer Anthony Billingsley Room 133 MB, Phone: 9385 3619 Email: [email protected] Tutors Tutors Liz Thurbon – MB126 [email protected] Joanne Pemberton – MB135 [email protected] Mark Rolfe – MB131 [email protected] John Fennessy – MB130 [email protected] Key Dates Key Dates Monday, 27 July: Tutorials begin. Thursday, 27 August: Short answer take­home test. Friday, 2 October: Major essay due. Course Objectives Course Objectives Course explores operation of international system. It looks at the different players in the system, their roles and how they interact. Aim is to provide a good conceptual & empirical basis for a critical analysis of how the international system works. It will provide the tools & skills to enable you to make sense of the international system & to make reasoned & informed judgments about international events & developments. And, hopefully, it will inspire many of you to continue with studies in the international relations field. Course Outline Course Outline Pages 5­10 in Course Guide. Actors in world politics: The state, IGO, NGO, MNC. The dynamics of the international system: Realism, liberalism & rival interpretations of the international system. Issues in world politics: Unipolarity/multipolarity, nuclear threat, globalisation, identity, hegemony, multilateralism, security. Tutorial discussion topics on pp. 8­9 of Course Guide. Course Resources Course Resources Text Book: Baylis and Smith ­ available from UNSW bookshop and in the reserve section of the library. General articles – Course guide pp. 9­11. Web Vista: lecture notes, administrative updates, links to websites, hints on assessment, some weekly readings available through Web Vista. Check your email through Web Vista regularly for subject updates. Monitor international events through a variety of media. Course Requirements Course Requirements All students must enrol in & attend 1 x 1 hour tutorial per week. Students must complete the set readings each week. All work must be submitted on time. Penalties for late work apply – p. 16. If (significant) problems arise, see your tutor ASAP. All pieces of assessment must be completed. Assessment Assessment Pages 11­16 of Course Guide. Tutorial participation ­ 20%: Marked on informed & willing participation ­ pp. 8­9 of Course Guide. 1 mark deducted for each tutorial missed. Short answer take­home test – 35%: to check how you are handling the basic concepts of the course. It will require answers of a few sentences at most. 2,500 word research essay ­ 45%: Essay questions listed on pp. 12­14 of Course Guide. Consult marking guidelines (p. 21 of Course Guide), essay writing guide (Web Vista), and details about plagiarism (pp. 18­19 of Course Guide). Hard & soft copy of essays required – Web Vista. Continuity & Change Continuity & Change What is the international system? The state in world politics. Who are the main players? Non­governmental actors – NGO, MNC, IGO. Managing the system – international tribunals. The theories behind the system. Unipolarity and multipolarity. Globalisation. Security in the international system. Major issues in the international system. International Community International Community A revolutionary concept. Parallels with a nation, e.g. Australia. People of different countries communicating with each other. A world government. Charter of UN starts with: We, the Peoples of the United Nations. The Covenant of the League of Nations began with the words: The High Contracting Parties. The State The State Modern state a Western concept. Treaty of Westphalia, 1648. Relationship between ruler & ruled – contract. Rousseau et al. Geographic limits. Government control. Government has monopoly on use of force – Weber. Sovereignty. Somalia. But – Pol Pot and Lebanon. The Nation State The Nation State A combination of two concepts: The state – geographically limited, with a central government ­ recognised by the international community as possessing decision­making power and a monopoly of the use of force (Weber). Associated with concepts like sovereignty, legitimacy, independence & self­sufficiency. Basis of Realist and Liberal theory. Nation state emerged later ­ includes idea of nation. An amorphous concept not limited by geography/law. Comprises people with a shared identity. The Role of the State The Role of the State Traditionally, state dominated IR. Reflected in Realist theory. Foreign policy the preserve of Executive. Public input limited. Ready resort to force. War is the continuation of politics by other means ­ von Clausewitz. Lord Palmerston: Nations have no permanent allies, only permanent interests. President Charles De Gaulle (1968): France has no permanent friends, only permanent interests. Washington ­ Tis folly in one nation to look for disinterested favours from another... Changing International System Changing International System World War One undermined the dominance of the state. And of Realist theory. People began to demand input at domestic & international levels. Liberalism, with its optimistic character, offered an opportunity for people to trust in the innate goodness and sense of their fellows human beings. The changes are more pronounced in Western countries. New Role of the State New Role of the State Changes in the role of the state have been led by the West. Developing countries tend to operate in traditional ways. Suspicious of Western infringements on sovereignty. Interest groups are not as developed in developing world. Executive remains in control. North­South Divide North­ Developing countries have sought to maintain the state­based system in order to protect their independence. They are threatened by Western pressure and by internal divisions. The different perceptions of the West and the Rest is known as the North­South divide. Imprecise term & misleading. Neither group is homogenous. Not all the South is poor. Not all is weak. Non­Governmental Actors Non­Governmental Actors Three broad categories – NGO, MNC and IGO. NGO give credibility to idea of international civil society. MNC are, depending on your perspective, controversial/positive contributors to involvement of countries in the international system. IGO ­ state­based & therefore fit traditional mould. They also have potential to create environment for an international governance process. Governments meet to discuss issues that are beyond the individual state to resolve – global warming – & seek global or regional solutions often based on legal processes. Managing the System Managing the System Big powers impose their will ­ by force or influence. International organisations (UN) seek cooperative solutions to world problems. International tribunals/courts/panels seek to enforce international law & will of world community. International Court of Justice – World Court ­ disputes between states. International Criminal Court ­ crimes by individuals – crimes against humanity & genocide. Panels for commercial arbitration & resolution of trade disputes – WTO disputes resolution mechanism. Ad hoc panels ­ crimes in Yugoslavia & Liberia. Theories & the System Theories & the System We will look at theories that seek to explain the international system. US ­ struggle of ideologies/theories between Liberals, Realists & the neo­cons. Neo­cons ­ a synthesis of Realism & Liberalism – stress the inherent anarchy/violence of internat. system combined with missionary zeal that presumes right to impose their view on others. Democratic peace theory (Doyle/Kant) justifies neo­con policies – democracies don’t fight each other. Theories took off after Cold War ­ world systems theory, constructivism, feminism & post­structuralism. These are assaults on Realism, rather than just a normative adjustment of the theory. Unipolarity/Multipolarity Unipolarity/Multipolarity Article by Ash ­ Multipolar Disorder ­ sums up key issues in IR with since the Cold War. Looks at world chaos & suggests even US unable to enforce order & stability on international system. Asks are we better off in multipolar or unipolar world. Mearsheimer (1990) ­ “Why we will soon miss the Cold War”. Fukuyama & Huntington articles on likely direction of the international system with end of bipolar order. Watch behaviour of China & Russia to see if we are moving towards a multipolar world – the sort of system that gave us WWI & WWII or something different. Globalisation Globalisation Globalisation destroys local differences, undermines state sovereignty & fills bellies of bloated capitalists. Or it is bringing world closer together & promoting well­being of everyone on earth. Accused of facilitating terrorism/organised crime through internet & easy movement of funds & info. A focal point in the conflict between North & South. Saul ­ looming collapse of globalisation as countries seek to resist pressures of Western multinationals. Jacques ­ globalisation finished ­ free trade no longer serves US interests ­ deals like US­Aust. preferential trade deal as a sign of death of multilateralism. WTO ­ collapse of Doha because of US & French refusal to accept liberalisation in agricultural sector. Security in International System Security in International System Who needs to be protected? From whom? From what threats? By what means? What are the major security issues in world politics today? What are the best ways of responding to security threats? Major Issues in International Major Issues in International System Globalisation; Identity; Human rights; The environment; Terrorism and organised crime; United Nations and the multilateral system; The power structure in the system – US hegemony versus growing power and influence of China and Russia. ...
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