Lecture+02 - ARTS1811: International Relations: ARTS1811:...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTS1811: International Relations: ARTS1811: International Continuity & Change Lecture 2 – 27 July, 2009 Non­State Actors: their role in the international system International organisations – their role International organisations – their role in the international system International governmental organisation. Liberal internationalism. The international context. Balance of power. Collective security. League of Nations. International law. United Nations. International regimes. The World Trade Organisation. MNC. What is an IGO? What is an IGO? Two forms of international governmental organisation. One is represented by UN & related organisations. The other is represented by more narrowly focused bodies, such as ASEAN and NATO. What they have in common is that they are organisations, not just of states, but for states. Liberal internationalism Liberal internationalism Liberals & Realists agree international environment is anarchic. Realists ­ lasting co­operation between states unlikely because of conflict that is built in to the system. Existence of IGO challenges traditional ideas about international relations. Liberal internationalists ­ peace best promoted by international governmental political, economic, social & technical institutions ­ help states to work together. Balance of Power Balance of Power Balance of power a feature of IR. Balance of power prevented direct conflict between US & USSR during Cold War. Realists ­ breakdown of the bipolar balance of power could lead to conflict in the future. Warsaw Pact intended by Stalin to help develop a balance of power with NATO. Possession by Pakistan & India of atomic weapons created regional balance of power. Balance of power can refer to situations where equality is not the issue. Collective Security Collective Security WWI led to reaction against old system, including efforts to limit effects of war – even banning war – Wilson’s 14 Points, League of Nations & Kellogg­ Briand Pact. Collective security ­ two forms typified by the League of Nations & UN. League required universal response to attack – a failure. UN has ad hoc arrangements. NATO retains the League approach. UN and its role UN and its role E. H. Carr, Twenty Years Crisis (1919­39) ­ attack on ‘Utopianism’ ­ Realist. National security: state the only basis for political community. Conflict endemic. Emerged in context of collapse of League, militarism & aggression leading to WWII. Fuelled by Cold War tension, balance of power, mutually assured destruction. Self­interest the only guide to state actions. This organisation is created to prevent you from going to hell. It isn’t created to take you to heaven – Henry Cabot­ Lodge. Origins of the United Nations Origins of the United Nations Four times in the modern age, men have sat down to reorder the world – at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 after the 30 Years’ War, at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic wars, in Paris in 1919 after World War One & in San Francisco in 1945 after World War II – Keegan UN ­ creature of Roosevelt administration & political/ military context at time. Acheson ­ Our vital interests do not permit us to be indifferent to the outcome of the wars raging in Europe & Asia ­ Americans cannot be isolated from events unless they want a kind of eternalinternment on this continent. Capital available for industrial production, removal of tariffs, decent industrial standards, stable monetary system & elimination of preferential trade deals. US Impact on the UN US Impact on the UN To ensure he got what he wanted Roosevelt had initial drafting done secretly in State Department. Many of Wilson’s 14 points were incorporated. Permanent membership of Security Council & veto. To ensure the new organisation would be fully supported by the victors of the war – US, UK, Britain and China. A way of maintaining the big five’s power, especially US power. American politicians also saw the veto as a way of ensuring ‘Lilliputian’ nations could not vote US into a war it did not want. Roosevelt proposed the “Four Policemen”, implying the major powers would bear much responsibility for maintaining international peace & security. UN Responsibilities UN Responsibilities In security terms, Security Council has capacity to respond to violence. UNGA a ‘moral conscience’ on security issues. But residual power ­ "Uniting for Peace". Secretariat: Strictly speaking just the administrative centre, but exerts considerable informal power. The Economic and Social Council. The Trusteeship Council. UN agencies – e.g. UNDP, UNHCR, UNICEF. International Law International Law Centrality of the state – states the subjects of international law. About interstate relations. About order, not justice. UNSC maintenance of peace and security. Global governance/regulation. Non­state actors now important. Different types of law. Individuals responsible for crimes of states. Laws, like spiders’ webs, catch the small flies and let the large ones go free ­ Balzac International Court System International Court System ICJ – relations between states – contentious and advisory opinions – arm of the UN. Tribunals – usually from UNSC – case specific ­ Rwanda, Bosnia, Sierra Leone. Arbitration – range of (commercial) disputes between states – International Court for Arbitration, International Court for Environmental Arbitration and Conciliation, ad hoc. ICC – crimes against humanity, genocide, mass murder, aggression – individual focus. International Court of Justice International Court of Justice Established in 1945 to replace Permanent Court of International Justice. Presides over Advisory Opinions and Contentious Cases. Only states can appear before the Court for contentious cases. All UN member states automatically parties. no state can, without its consent, no state can, without its consent, be compelled to submit its disputes with other States either to mediation or arbitration, or to any other kind of pacific settlement; Responsibilities of the ICJ Responsibilities of the ICJ Advisory Opinions ­ clear political dimension. Decisions on jurisdiction require political sensitivity. The Israeli Wall opinion. Western Sahara hearing. Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons. Contentious Cases: Iran Hostage Case. Dispute between Tunisia & Libya over delimitation of their continental shelf. Dispute over the maritime boundary dividing US & Canada in Gulf of Maine. Yugoslavia against members of NATO regarding their bombing campaign during Kosovo War. International Tribunals International Tribunals You will get a fair hearing from the international criminal process. Problems include custody, immunity and jurisdiction. Vulnerable to charge of politicisation. Major criminals can escape prosecution. ICC ICC ICC ­ a new approach – a permanent trial process for breaches of humanitarian & human rights law. Immune from political interference. Can be trusted to be objective. Can do the work for countries that might have problems acting themselves. US opposition is far­reaching. NGO, INGO, TNA, NLO, CBO NGO, INGO, TNA, NLO, CBO What is an NGO? What is an NGO? private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development – World Bank Major players in international development. 1970­85 aid disbursed by NGO grew ten­fold. 1992 ­ NGO channelled $7.6 billion of aid to developing countries. 15% of official aid is channelled through NGO. Up to 30,000 national NGO in developing countries. Community­based organisations in developing world number in the hundreds of thousands. NGO as Political Actors NGO as Political Actors Also important in political life of international community. NGO have specific purpose for existing. Must not be directly connected to government. NGO operate to defend/promote a specific cause & Seek to influence the attitudes, policies & practices of international community. NGO have gained a degree of formal recognition from states WWII. Operational NGO Operational NGO community­based ­ serve specific population in narrow area; national ­ in individual countries; international ­ HQ in developed countries ­ operations in more than one country. 1970s/1980s, dealings between states/international orgs. with NGO involved international NGOs. 1994 World Bank projects with NGO ­ 40% with community­based orgs., 70% with national orgs., 10% involved international orgs.. National & internat. orgs. are intermediary NGO ­ serve others ­ deliver services, design projects or conduct research. In participatory devel. projects, community­based orgs. are key – basis for beneficiary participation. Advocacy NGO Advocacy NGO A very diverse group of organisations within this category. From professional bodies, e.g. the International Federation of Airline Pilots’ Associations to: Trade unions. Sporting bodies ­ International Olympic Committee. Advocates of human security ­ World Council of Churches, Greenpeace, Amnesty International & World­Wide Fund for Nature. Political networks ­ Socialist International. National liberation movements. Strengths of NGO Strengths Nature/quality of individual NGO varies greatly. Strengths of NGO include: strong grassroots links; field­based development expertise; the ability to innovate and adapt; process­oriented approach to development; participatory methodologies and tools; long­term commitment/emphasis on sustainability; cost­effectiveness; image of neutrality. NGO Weaknesses NGO Weaknesses Limited financial/management expertise – often badly run; Limited institutional capacity; Low levels of self­sustainability; Isolation/lack of inter­organisational communication and/or coordination; Small scale interventions; Lack of understanding of the broader social or economic context; Susceptibility to cooption; Competitive nature. NGO Objectives NGO Objectives Over time, NGO have served a dual role. First responsibility is to theirmembers, but A source of opinion/information for IO. UN encourages NGO to participate in its activities. 1995 UN Beijing Conference on Women ­ attended by 30,000 delegates ­ most representing NGO. Rio Conference on Environment & Development ­ tens of thousands of NGO. NGO fora held at same time as official conference. These are usually co­operative ventures. NGO oppose official events ­ meetings of trade & finance ministers & of Group of Eight. Rules of the Game Rules of the Game UN rules for NGO. NGO should support the work of the UN. NGO preferably should have a formal, identifiable structure, with members, officials, headquarters, etc.. NGO must be non­profit organisations. NGO must not use or advocate violence. NGO must accept the rule of non­interference in the internal affairs of states – an important aspect of the UN Charter & a reflection of Realist influence. NGO must not be the result of an intergovernmental agreement. The Goal of Influence The Goal of Influence Many NGO seek formal access to UN. Want influence on decisions of IO & governments in areas of concern to them. Cannot be members ­ reserved for states. Seek observer status at international conferences and other meetings. Allows them to attend meetings, submit position papers & lobby delegates. It provides pressure on delegates who are aware their activities/decisions are being monitored & reported to lobby groups in their home countries. Political NGO Political NGO National liberation groups ­ heroic fighters for independence or for an end to unpopular government. Eritreans – independence. Sandinistas – governmental change. Some use non­violent means their ends. Parti Quebecois in Canada. Language groups in Belgium. Others resort to violence ­ non­violent action will not achieve goal. IRA ­ appear to have given up violence. Basques ­ seem to have abandoned resort to force. Hamas, Hizballah, Tamil Tigers. National Liberation Groups National Liberation Groups Seek independence from an existing state – Quebecois, Basques, Biafrans, Eritreans; Seek to overthrow government – Vietcong, Sandinistas, Mujahadeen (Afghan) & ANC. Seek independence from colonial rule. Those with a particular national liberation goal ­ Hizballah. Some identify another category ­ ethnic liberation movement. The efforts of the Jews to establish a state, establishment of a Turkish state & creation of states in Balkans ­ based on racial, religious or linguistic characteristic. Terrorist NGO Terrorist NGO How to handle resort to terrorism by different groups. No consensus about how to define terrorism. Or how to deal with it. National liberation movements resort to violence ­ Tamil Tigers. In part problem is politicisation by Western governments. 1995 Kofi Annan proposed a definition of terrorism ­ initiative has gone nowhere. Objectives of terrorists can be hard to fathom ­ Aum Shinrikyo & Sarin gas – 1995 Al Qa’ida – a manifesto ­ not precise. Multinational Corporations Multinational Corporations MNC is a corporation that has its headquarters or centre of operations in one country & owns & operates businesses/subsidiaries in others. 2003 ­ about 63,000 MNC with 820,000 subsidiaries – 90 million employees. 25% of world’s GDP. Stages of Development of MNC Stages of Development of MNC 1. Corporation decides to operate off shore ­ establishes separate plans or strategies for each country in which it intends to operate ­ ‘multi­ domestic’. 2. Corporation seeks to dominate a sector but still is predominantly focused on the home country ­ ‘global corporations’. 3. Corporation draws on global resources, management, production and other capabilities to assume the status of a MNC. MNC as Actors in World Politics MNC as Actors in World Politics In 2000, of top 100 economic units in the world, first 22 were countries. But of the next 78 economies, 51 were MNC. General Motors worth twice as much as economies like Venezuela and Malaysia. MNC produce over USD3.5 trillion in goods and services. Over 10 per cent of the world’s economic output. 70% of world trade is run by 500 MNC. Where are MNC Active? Where are MNC Active? It is not just size of MNC that is important ­ but also their reach. Just about every country has MNC. MNC headquarters & sensitive operations in developed countries – changing. In 1998, 477 of the world’s largest MNC were based in Europe, Japan or the US. MNC require sophisticated infrastructure & trained staff for their most important operations. The largest proportion of MNC investment is directed at developed countries. The Stateless Corporation? The Stateless Corporation? Their size & the flexibility offered by information technology changed outlook of MNC. Companies now run with a global perspective. MNC have become divorced from national shareholders who funded them when they were domestic operations. Demand for funds is such that pension funds and similar organisations with huge resources have become central to MNC prosperity. These funds are not focused on national units as traditional shareholders. MNC regard states and their ‘unscientific’ demands in response to the pressures of voters to be an inconvenience at times. Outbreak of extraordinary mergers and acquisitions over the past decade. Where does the loyalty of the merged entities lie? Methods of Operation Methods of Operation MNC may enjoy total control of their operations. The preferred model ­ allows maximum control. But MNC must make significant investments in foreign countries ­ carries business/political risks – country or sovereign risk. MNC may sell part of a local subsidiary leaving others to share the risk and costs of the operation. Host government may maintain degree of control. Joint ventures the favoured by governments seeking direct foreign investment without losing control of the economy – oil exporters. For companies whose business involves intellectual property, joint venture option might be difficult. What is the Impact of MNC? What is the Impact of MNC? MNC promote economic integration/political unity or cooperation ­ has an impact on sovereignty of states. Critics ­ MNC contribute to wealth/power of advanced countries but exploit/undermine developing countries. MNC dominance of key sectors, technologies & raw materials, gives them potential stranglehold over developing & developed countries ­ threatens sovereignty. Supporters say MNC provide jobs, training & services otherwise unavailable in many countries. MNC have the capacity to make or break the national economies of many small states. They provide investment, training & jobs but can withdraw benefits to suit their objectives, regardless of impact on host. MNC move production facilities from one country to next in search of the cheapest labour & most favourable regulatory conditions ­ exploit power gaps between governments. Degree of centralised decision­making associated with MNC can represent a challenge to role of the state. MNC and Security MNC and Security US MNC embedded in producing resources for US military. Eisenhower’s warning ­ the military­industrial complex. In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military­industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defence with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together ­ Ike. Ethical impact of MNC Ethical impact of MNC Interest in maintaining focus on military issues, threats & solutions to security challenges. Resist pressure to resolve threats if profitability affected ­ global warming. Mercenaries ­ for US/UK in Iraq & Afghanistan. States dependent for oil supplies on certain MNC. US military equipment provided by non­US MNC. MNC political impact on states, often unintentional. Survival of government might depend on MNC. Consumer tastes narrowed over 2nd half of 20th century ­ MNC benefit – encourage process. Communities see MNC destroying culture –terrorism. MNC as global players MNC as global players Provide expertise, training and resources. Encourage more efficient and productive economies. Operationalisation of theory of comparative advantage. Raise living standards, esp. in developing countries. Make war obsolete – McDonalds theory of IR. MNC out of control. Focus on cheapest, least regulated/protected markets. Nationalists resent that MNC based in US, Europe & Japan. MNC competition & need of states to accommodate them results in environmental degradation, social disruption & falling health standards. ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/10/2011 for the course ARTS 1811 taught by Professor Anthonybillingsley during the Three '09 term at University of New South Wales.

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