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Continuity and Change Lecture 4 10 August, 2009 Critiques of Realism – Liberalism, Neo
Liberalism and Feminist Critiques The Evils of Wickedpedia
The Evils of Wickedpedia Routledge Reference collection a useful nonWikipedia source of quick information, especially for politics and international relations. To find on the Library’s catalogue : type routledge reference, limit to databases. Oxford Online is also handy. Introduction
a. The Neoconservatives.
b. Main Liberal Writers: Central Tenets of Liberalism; Different Forms of Liberalism; Kant’s Influence; Contemporary Liberalism; Criticisms of Liberalism.
c. NeoLiberalism: Central Tenets of NeoLiberalism; Criticisms of NeoLiberalism.
d. Liberalism in Practice. NeoConservatives
NeoConservatives Liberals mugged by reality.
Leo Strauss – guru.
Irving Kristol – Commentary, American Enterprise Institute. William Kristol – Weekly Standard.
Paul Wolfowitz – Defence, IMF, disgrace.
Richard Perle – Prince of Darkness, Defence.
Norman Podhoretz – Reagan = Chamberlain.
Elliot Abrams – IranContra, State Dept..
Robert Kagan – Project for New American Century – Europeans are from Venus, Americans are from Mars. Charles Krauthammer – Washington Post. Project for New American Century
Project for New American Century As the 20th century draws to a close, the US stands as the world's preeminent power. Having led the West to victory in the Cold War, America faces an opportunity & a challenge: Does the US have the vision to build upon the achievements of past decades? Does the US have the resolve to shape a new century favourable to American principles and interests? Significant increase of US military spending. Strengthen ties to US allies & challenge regimes hostile to US interests & values. Promote political/economic freedom outside US. Preserve & extend an international order friendly to US security, prosperity & principles. Important Liberal Writers
Important Liberal Writers Locke (C17) social contract of state – rule of law. Bentham (C18) – Utilitarianism, International law, reciprocity the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation . Kant (C18) Perpetual peace, domesticinternational divide problematic. Hegel (C18) – state as realisation of individual freedom. Adam Smith (C19) free trade, economic freedom. Central Tenets of Liberalism
Central Tenets of Liberalism Liberals see the world as it should be Realists observe it from a neutral perspective. Human beings are rational can elaborate interests and live by law, morality. Individual freedom most important. Human nature basically good. Possible for human agency to effect change. Collective security. Domesticinternational distinction is problematic: world society, effect of domestic structures on the international. National boundaries are permeable. Forms of Liberalism
Forms of Liberalism Economic liberalism: free trade, economic freedom – can extend to imperialism. Political liberalism: right of individuals to freedom. Liberalinstitutionalism: central role of international institutions/organisations (UN, WTO) – Hedley Bull. Functionalism: cooperation in one area will flow on to others Haas, Mitrany . Interdependence/Neoliberalism: multiple links between states making conflict irrational. McDonalds theory Keohane/Nye. Republican Liberalism: insideout model of IR. Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant States are neither good nor bad. Ideal state is republican.
No state should interfere in the affairs of another.
Republics entitled to demand other states adopt similar constitutions.
Abolish standing armies. Peace not natural war is natural.
Peace results from government need to seek permission of citizens who are unwilling to fight others.
democracy is, properly speaking despotism. Democratic Peace Theory
Democratic Peace Theory Doyle (1995), ‘On the Democratic Peace’.
Inspired by Kant, ‘Perpetual Peace’.
Democracies do not go to war with each other.
Democracies are still violent – US and Iraq.
Is it democracy or wealth that promotes peace?
Is it democracy or shared values/economies etc?
Short term focus – preWW II?
A naïve approach to the future. Fukuyama – End of History
Fukuyama – End of History End of Cold War ended 200 years of ideological conflict – socialism v. free market. History at point where lib. democracy is only legitimate way to meet human needs & goals. Criticisms Current order promotes certain economic & political ideas & those who benefit in that order. Liberal economics create pressing problems. Historical experience & study really irrelevant? Deterministic and reductionist. Too early to say? Ideology as only axis of conflict? Criticisms of Liberalism
Criticisms of Liberalism E. H. Carr.
Naive about human nature, world politics.
Universalises Western experience.
Excuse to impose Western ideas.
Conservative promotes status quo.
Economic v political liberalism?
Assumptions of reason & rationality are problematic. Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism Built on earlier arguments about functionalism (Mitrany, Haas). And the spread of cooperation from one area to another. A response to development of cooperation in Europe and movements internationally towards economic integration and interconnectedness 1977: Keohane and Nye, Power and Interdependence Conflict becomes irrational. Central Tenets of NeoLiberalism
Central Tenets of NeoLiberalism Can apply rational choice, objective, scientific understandings to understanding world politics (like Realism v NeoRealism). Can achieve cooperation under anarchy through interdependence. Can establish regimes to institutionalise cooperation. Regime & institutions moderate state behaviour – help avoid conflict. Extent of links between states makes conflict more costly, irrational. Have to address role of interest groups, MNC, NGO, to understand world politics. Criticisms of NeoLiberalism
Criticisms of NeoLiberalism Assumption of rationality problematic, doesn’t explore origins of interests these are assumed. Can you relate objectively to the world out there? (the problem of epistemology). Ultimately advocates spread of neoliberal economic mechanisms and institutions. Has more similarities than differences with Neo
Realism, esp. re anarchy and its implications. Liberal Thought & Practice Post
Liberal Thought & Practice Post
WW1 WWI led to widespread reaction against old system. Including efforts to limit effects of war – even banning war. Wilson’s 14 Points and KelloggBriand Pact. Collective security takes two forms typified by the League of Nations & United Nations. Assumes some states will fail to live by the law of nations. League of Nations – universal response to an aggressor – from Kant. League of Nations
League of Nations Collective security was central to establishment of League of Nations (1919): ‘one for all and all for one’. Underpinned by Liberal ideas about world politics. Not as much a redefinition or theory of security as an alternative perspective on the possibility for statetostate cooperation to avoid conflict. Normative: creating a peaceful world. Embodied in NATO. UN Charter: Preamble
UN Charter: Preamble We the peoples of the United Nations, determined: to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and reaffirm faith in fundamental HR, in dignity & worth of the human person, in equal rights of men & women & nations large & small, & establish conditions under which justice & respect for obligations arising from treaties & other sources of int. law can be maintained, & promote social progress & better standards of life in larger freedom, And for these ends: to practice tolerance & live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, & unite our strength to maintain international peace & security, & ensure, by acceptance of principles & institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, & to employ international machinery for promotion of economic & social advancement of all peoples, UN and Liberalism
UN and Liberalism UN as a force for redefining international system? Questioned by those who say UN is either: A conservative organisation preserving the status quo; or An organisation that plays no material role in global politics. In general, UN often caught between maintaining state support & representing a global society. End of the Cold War
End of the Cold War An opportunity to reassess security theory and practice. Nature of end of Cold War – USSR suddenly gave up without a fight. Challenged Realist theory. As with end of WWI & WWII, end of Cold War released optimism & hope. Revival of Liberal ideas. An opportunity to address other areas of global politics – not just nuclear war. End of Cold War:
End of Cold War:
a New World Order? Hope for cooperative relations in practice with the end of superpower rivalry. Hopeful signs evident in lead up to 1st USIraq war. New World Order: elaborated by Bush Snr. during US
Iraq war. Reaffirmation of sovereignty & territorial integrity. Respect for nonintervention & nonaggression. Support for international law and institutions. New superpower cooperation. Willingness of international community to act, even forcibly, in support of the above goals. Next week
Other critiques of Realism.
Marxism and World Systems Theory ...
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