ARTS 1810 - Lecture 1 [Compatibility Mode]

ARTS 1810 - Lecture 1 [Compatibility Mode] - ARTS 1810...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTS 1810 International Relations in the Twentieth Century International Relations in the Twentieth Century Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta in 1945 Dr Andrea Benvenuti Semester I, 2009 Course aims In this course we will: examine examine relations among states during the XX century understand understand how the international system has evolved discuss discuss major events that have affected international relations Twentieth Century “summitry” understand understand how major powers shaped the international system … … and how their policies were shaped by it and The Twentieth Century: a quick glance Five major factors characterised last century: Globalization Globalization Modernization Modernization Powerful Powerful ideologies Violent Violent and destructive conflict A violent century Redistribution Redistribution of power away from Europe 1 Globalization and the shrinking world Globalization is the result of: Widening Widening Speeding Speeding up Deepening Deepening Growing political, economic and social interactions across regions Crises that can no longer be ignored … Greater political interdependence is reflected in: Greater Greater multilateralism More More frequent diplomacy Crises Crises tend to affect us more Modernization Globalization linked to Modernization Rapid Modernization a result of: Scientific Scientific & industrial revolutions French French revolution Some effects: secularization secularization urbanization urbanization industrialization industrialization & technological advance Singapore in 1900 & today Modernization led to faster communications It affected traditional social, cultural & economic life Strong ideologies emerged out of this process The rise of powerful ideologies These ideologies would in turn bring more change They were: Nationalism Nationalism Socialism/Communism Socialism/Communism Fascism/Nazism Fascism/Nazism How can you forget them? 2 Violent conflict XX century saw another important phenomenon Tendency to descend into war No previous century claimed same death toll A cruel novelty … Technological Technological advances made war more lethal Nuclear balance of terror Redistribution of power When the XX century began, Europe dominated world politics USSR and US eclipsed Europe after WWII Decolonisation new states established Collapse of USSR/end of Cold war Europe in ruins (1945) ‘Unipolarity’/’Multipolarity’? The international system (1900-45) EuroEuro-centric international system Based on the ‘balance of power’ (multipolarity & shifting alliances) European powers called the shots They They had important military capabilities … … dominated world trade dominated European empires covered much of the world US and Japan on the rise, but limited influence Europe before and after WWI 3 The European Ascendancy The international system (1945-89) New New IS was profoundly different Structured Structured around opposing blocs Changing Changing alignments discouraged Based Based on nuclear deterrence The The two superpowers had the means to destroy each other Superpower Superpower confrontation was: The Cold War: a view Ideological Ideological Military Military Diplomatic Diplomatic Economic Economic The two blocs After After 1945 realignments strongly discouraged East/West East/West blocs USSR USSR crashed the Hungarian and Czech uprisings In In the 1960s China broke away from USSR camp Unlike Unlike Warsaw Pact, NATO was the result of Western European lobbying The ‘Iron Curtain’ Dissent Dissent amongst Western allies tolerated 4 Nuclear Deterrence Nuclear Nuclear weapons changed nature of power politics ‘Nuclear ‘Nuclear deterrence’ and ‘balance of terror’ displaced 'balance of power' US/USSR US/USSR were careful not to escalate crises Balance of terror ‘cold ‘cold war‘ / ’hot war‘ / 'war by proxies‘ US/USSR US/USSR went close to a nuclear exchange in 1962 Cold War & Decolonisation Cold Cold War was not all about superpower confrontation Rapid Rapid process of decolonisation European European powers forced to give up their empires The Cold Warriors and the ‘decolonised world’ International International system increasingly less WestWest-oriented Some Some newly independent nations pursued ‘non-alignment’ ‘non- Cold War & Decolonisation Non-alignment according to a British cartoonist 5 Growing institutionalisation Before Before 1945 IS had very few institutions LN LN was basically the only international institution PostPost-1945 saw a growing number of institution UN UN established in 1945 World World Bank (1946), IMF (1945) and GATT (1948) Emergence Emergence of political/economic groupings such as EU, ASEAN The United Nations What What had the greatest impact on peace? Deterrence or larger web of institutions? ARTS 1810 International Relations in the Twentieth Century Course outline Dr Andrea Benvenuti UNSW Consultations Hours My consultation hours: 12:30 -2:30 pm on Tuesdays 12:30 In special circumstances, you can make an appointment outside consultation hours For all queries relating to your tutes, please email your tutors For more general questions, please email our Senior Tutorial Email addresses are posted on WebCT Vista Tutors will run four consultation sessions on those weeks before & after your essay deadline 6 Assessment Minor Essay (1,200 words) 15% Major Essay (2,200 words) 35% Class Presentation 10% Class Participation 10% Multiple Choice Test 30% You MUST attend at least 80% of tutorial classes to be eligible for a mark Course material Required readings: William William Keylor, The Twentieth Century World and Beyond The Henry Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy Diplomacy Extra Extra Essential readings will be posted on WebCT Vista For each week, the course outlines has a list of further readings Academic articles can be accessed at IR Subject guide can be accessed at Readings Tutorial 2 Great Power Rivalry and WW I, 1900-18 16-20 March Discussion Topics Was the outbreak of WW I the result of the operation, or of the breakdown, of the balance of power? Could WW I have been avoided? Essential Readings Keylor, William, The Twentieth Century World and Beyond: An International History, 5th edition. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 39-64 Kissinger, Heny, Diplomacy (New York: Touchstone, 1994), pp. 168-217 Recommended Readings Bartlett, Christopher John, The Global Conflict: The International Rivalry of the Great Powers 1988-1970 (New York: Longman, 1984) Ferguson, Niall, The War of the World: History’s Age of Hatred (London: Allen Lane, 2006) Fink, Carole, Hull, Isabel and Knox, MacGregor (eds), German Nationalism and the European Response, 18901945 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985) 7 Essays Minor Essay due on 6 April (2pm) Major Essay due on 18 May (2pm) Special consideration/Extensions/re-marking – when does it apply? consideration/Extensions/re- Plagiarism WEBCT VISTA Please check this site regularly Course Course outline Lecture notes Extra material if needed Go to How can I cope with essay writing etc? The UNSW Learning Centre runs workshops on Essay Essay writing Introduction Introduction to critical thinking Location Hut G23 Level 2 Or Library Building Phone 02 9385 2060 Grammar Grammar editing How How to make oral presentations Opening Hours Monday to Thursday: 9 am - 5 pm Friday: 9 am - 2.30 pm How How to reference academic work How How to avoid plagiarism How How to develop time management strategies 8 ...
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