ARTS 1810 - Lecture 2 [Compatibility Mode]

ARTS 1810 - Lecture 2 [Compatibility Mode] - ARTS 1810...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTS 1810 International Relations in the Twentieth Century Great power rivalry and World War I, 1900-18 Australian troops enter a German trench in World War I Dr Andrea Benvenuti Semester I, 2009 The World at the turn of the XIX century Europe had enjoyed a long peace Turn of XIX & XX known as ‘belle époque’ Scientific/technological Scientific/technological progress Belief Belief that humans were embarked on steady progress Interdependent Interdependent nature of finance/trade/industry had altered international politics From the belle époque to the ruins of WW I Hence, military power appeared to have become meaningless Yet, only a few years later Europe plunged into WWI How did we get there? The long ‘Pax Europaea’ Congress of Vienna had laid the ground for relative peace Order & stability were based on: WellWell-organised system of diplomacy ‘Balance ‘Balance of Power’ Mutual Mutual deterrence No No country could be much stronger than the others Moderation Moderation in the pursuit of self-interest (cooperation) selfShifting Shifting alliances • The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) Fixed alliances with a balancer • Weak alliances with no balancer Peace broken by Crimean Crimean war (1853-56) (1853- Balance of Power Wars Wars for Italian and German unification in 1848-71 1848Colonial Colonial conflicts These conflicts were: When any one state gains too much power, other powers close ranks to form a blocking coalition, thus restoring the equilibrium limited limited in scope fought fought for limited objectives 1 Balance of Power: its weaknesses The ‘Concert of Europe’ Had Had no written rules Had Had no permanent institutions Was Was based on a fragile equilibrium skilful skilful diplomacy needed It was based on basic understanding: In In times of crisis any power could propose a conference Bismarck (centre) with Giers and Von Kalnoky ‘Concert’ could only function when powers agreed Europe possessed only a rudimentary framework of international law Hague Hague peace conference (1899)/Court of Arbitration Who were the Great Powers? Established Great Powers Britain Britain France France Germany Germany AustriaAustria-Hungary Russia Russia The Great Powers in Europe WouldWould-be (or ‘courtesy’) Great Powers Italy Italy United United States Japan Japan The Monroe Doctrine (1823) Established Great Powers Britain Britain Withrance existing colonies or dependencies of any European France F the power was have attitudes to Asian and shall not interfere. Indeed, ermany in their not interfered, nationalism that leaders Ben But Germany G it we Chifley and Evatt were to showwhogreatest declared their with the governments the have contrast with the AustriaAustria governments conservative-Hungary … wewhich followed them. Theinterposition for the independence could not view any language chosen bypurpose of oppressing regional politics wasEuropean power in Chifley and Evatt to explain them … by any surprisingly Russia Russia progressive, particularly given that inmanifestation of an unfriendly any other light than as the areas such as White Australia, in Europe The Great Powers post-war security, and international communism disposition towards the United States. WouldWould-be (or ‘courtesy’) Great Powers Meg Gurry, “Identifying Australia’s Region”, pp. 21-22 James Monroe’s annual message to Congress (Dec 1823) Italy Italy United United States Japan Japan 2 But it wasn’t all as peaceful as it seemed … Apparent stability, but several causes of friction Naval Naval rivalry between UK & Germany France France resented loss of Alsace-Lorraine AlsaceGermans Germans pursued aggressive ‘Weltpolitik’ Germany worried that UK/France/Russia tried to encircle it Russia worried about Germany’s and A-H’s Aambitions in the Balkans The source of Franco-German enmity Serbian nationalism another factor of instability A-H threatened by it Why did the ‘Concert of Europe’ collapse? Differing Differing interpretations: economic/imperial economic/imperial rivalry re-distribution of power r eMiscalculation/misperceptions/accident Miscalculation/misperceptions/accident or fear Some consensus emerged that primary responsibility rests with Germany Dominant Dominant economically, Germany wanted comparable political status Germany reunited (1971) It It pursued high-risk policy of confrontation high- Europe increasingly polarised ‘…Yet, no one country can be singled out for that mad dash to disaster. Each of the major powers contributed its quota of shortsightedness and irresponsibility …’ Germany isolated and unwilling to use ‘Concert of Europe’ because in a minority Kissinger, Diplomacy Germany under Bismarck (1871-90) Germany was a strong power at the centre of Europe Bismarck chose not to make this explicit His main aims were: To To build the Reich’s institutions/industry To To prevent French revanchism and isolate France revanchism and He relied on skilful and patient diplomacy He He aimed to strengthen the ‘Concert of Europe’ Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck (1871-90) He He made sure that France and Russia would never form an alliance He He settled quarrels which threatened peace He He eschewed colonial expansion 3 Germany under Wilhelm II Wilhelm II Germany embarked on ‘Weltpolitik’ German behaviour worried European powers: Germany Germany wanted a greater say in colonial questions Germany Germany launched major naval build-up buildAggressive Aggressive diplomacy during I and II Moroccan crises UK, France and Russia saw German behaviour with concern German Emperor Wilhelm II What did Germany have in mind? Weltpolitik Germany managed to bring about an extraordinary reversal of alliances If another great power gained something, Germany must get some compensation How did the other Great Powers react? In response, UK signed signed ‘Entente Cordiale’ with France (1904) came came to terms with Russia (1907) These understandings developed into ‘Triple Entente’ UK UK abandoned its ‘splendid isolation’ France France saw it as a chance to break down the old Bismarckian system Russia Russia worried that Germany would support A-H in the ABalkans Triple Entente and Triple Alliance Germany saw ‘Triple Entente’ as encirclement Hence, Hence, its diplomacy became more bullying Europe polarised and on the brink of war 5 times in 10 yrs Austrian-Serbian hostility Under Alexander I Serbia was friendly towards A-H A- But in 1903 nationalists killed Alexander After 1903 Serbia did a dramatic U-turn UIt It became anti-Austrian antiIt It sought to create a Greater Serbia or large South Slav kingdom The multiethnic Austro-Hungarian empire For A-H this was a serious threat A- Serbian Serbian nationalism risked undermining A-H’s multiAmultiethnic empire 4 The ‘casus belli’ (1914) SerbianSerbian-Austrian hostility had serious consequences Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand set off WWI A-H held Serbia responsible for assassination Assassination gave A-H excuse to teach Serbia a Alesson The assassination of the Austrian Archduke and his wife in Sarajevo, Bosnia (28 June 1914) Until then, A-H lacked a credible excuse to do so A- On 23 July 1914 A-H issued ultimatum A- The lead-up to WW I Germany gave A-H a ‘blank cheque’ (6 July) AA-H issued ultimatum (23 July) A-H declared war on Serbia on (28 July) Russia Russia ordered pre-mobilisation (28 July) preGermany Germany ordered Russia to stop (29 July) French troops parade in Paris on the way to the front Russia mobilised (30 July) and France stood by its side Germany sent an ultimatum to both Russia and France (31 July) Germany declared war on: Russia Russia (1 August) France France (3 August) Belgium Belgium (4 August) UK declared war on Germany (4 August) What caused the war and who is to blame? We have seen how: BP BP ceased to function This This led to growing instability Growing Growing instability further unsettled BP But what brought the BP to the tipping point? Historians have long argued what caused the war: WWI recruiting tour (in Australia) Alliance Alliance system made the war inevitable Economic Economic rivalries Russia Russia made the war more likely German German role was crucially important Arms Arms race 5 But did the alliance system cause the war? Once Great Powers got themselves into situations, they could not escape without suffering humiliation (Kennan) Yet alliances remained flexible enough Were Were defensive The evils of war Demanded Demanded action only if partner was attacked allowed Great Powers to withhold diplomatic/military allowed support So, So, to what extent (if any) was the alliance system responsible for the outbreak of WWI? Alliance in IR In In IR alliances are generally defensive Only Only few alliances contain clauses contemplating ‘aggressive’ and ‘offensive’ action Did economic rivalries cause the war? For Marxist historians WWI was result of economic rivalries between European countries For Marx & Engels capitalist countries would resort to war because of their system of production The ‘fathers’ of communism Lenin himself saw WWI as product of contradictions within capitalist system For Lenin, WWI as age of ‘imperialism’ Overproduction Overproduction and under-consumption in capitalistic undereconomies Hence, Hence, scramble for markets for surplus and investments ‘… The need of constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe …’ Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto But were they right? Did Russia make the war more likely? Historians have highlighted the fact that: Russia’s Russia’s backing made Serbia more reckless Russian Russian mobilisation pushed Germans to mobilise & declare war Czar Nicholas II Russia, however, counselled caution to the Serbs before A-H declared war on Serbia A- Initially, Russia’s mobilisation was only partial So to what extent is Russia responsible for WW I? The Ottoman empire 6 Arms race The 1912-13 Balkan crises accelerated arms race 1912- A dangerous cycle of actions/reactions set in Germany/AGermany/A-H saw military balance tipping against them For For Von Moltke (CoGS), the more Germany waited, the CoGS), harder it would be to defeat Russia/France CounterCounter-argument has been made that Great Powers did not spend all that much on defence Defence Expenditure of the Great Powers (1900-13) In 1870In 1870-1913 only Russia spent more than 4% of GDP on defence If anything, inflexible mobilization plans were a more credible factor The role of Germany According to some, Germany relentlessly sought direct/indirect control Europe Yet, Wilhelm’s Germany was not a regime like Hitler’s It It had no master plan for aggression and conquest It It had an interest in the status quo It It had not always stirred up trouble (see its role in the Balkan crises) German troops at war Yet German help to A-H against Serbia was a Acrucial factor But responsibility also lies with A-H and its Balkan Apolicy World War I … Several leaders had envisioned a short war War greeted with enthusiasm by Western publics Europeans soon trapped in a long war of attrition Australian soldier on the European front Both sides tried to break impasse through costly campaigns 7 … and its end The WW I was a great dynamo for change Power began to shift out of Europe, notably to the US The The world’s financial centre shifted from London to NY France and Britain’s influence declined It accelerated the end of: US troops parade in Washington at the end of the war The The Romanov reign in Russia The The Habsburg empire The The Ottoman empire The emergence of two potentially influential actors on the world scene 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/10/2011 for the course ARTS 1810 taught by Professor Andreabenvenuti during the Three '09 term at University of New South Wales.

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