ARTS 1810 - Lecture 10 [Compatibility Mode]

ARTS 1810 - Lecture 10 [Compatibility Mode] - ARTS 1810...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTS 1810 International Relations in the XX century The End of the Cold War US President Ronald Reagan with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev Dr Andrea Benvenuti Semester I, 2009 Lecture plan USSR intervention in Afghanistan ended détente détente Renewed tensions between US and USSR The “Reagan factor” Relations remained tense until mid-1980s mid- An unexpected outcome The “Gorbachev factor” End of the 1980s witnessed a marked thaw in SovietSovietAmerican relations This led to the end of the Cold War Who ended the Cold War? Gorbachev ended the Cold War G. G. forced to make changes due to domestic problems G. G. would have taken initiative with or without Reagan’s policies Reagan ended the Cold Ward (1) His His tough policies put communist system under strain Who ended the Cold War? G. G. took no initiative, but adopted “new thinking” owing to US pressure Reagan ended the Cold War (2) R. R. feared that confrontation could get out of hand This This pushed him into softening his stance in 1983-84 1983This This persuaded G. to be more cooperative 1 Afghan crisis (1978-79) In 1978 communist coup overthrew non-aligned nongovernment in Kabul Initially, Moscow considered intervention, but decided against it New communist regime enjoyed little support A troubled land In Sept. 1979 change of leadership in Kabul Taraki’s successor, Hafizullah Amin, was not trusted in Amin, Moscow Only way to replace Amin was to send troops into Afghanistan Soviet intervention (1979) Intervention was expected to last “three or four weeks” In 1980 resistance intensified Various Various groups fighting Soviet forces & their communist allies The US, Pakistan, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms An Afghani freedom fighter When USSR began to pull out, conflict between Afghani factions continued The The raise of the Taliban (1994-96) (1994- American response USSR not too concerned about US response Carter’s response was forceful He He withdrew SALT II from Senate He He introduced economic sanctions against (i.e. grain/technology) US President Jimmy Carter (1977-80) He He reduced high-level contacts highHe He expanded US nuclear arsenal He He announced financial assistance to Pakistan Under Carter US began to aid Afghani mujahidin 2 Carter: an indecisive presidency? Carter’s response was striking It It was quite a change for a leader who had hoped to end Cold War During his presidency Carter had often been accused of being too “soft on the USSR” Reagan and Carter Reagan would make most of it during 1980 campaign Carter did not want to be seen as indecisive Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) Ronald Reagan (1916-2004) (1916Born in Illinois In mid-1930s he became an actor mid- Initially Initially a Democrat, he became a Republican in 1962 Defeated by Nixon (1968) and Ford (1976) in Republican primaries Ronald Reagan in his ‘acting’ days Opposed to détente in the mid-1970s mid- US decline and Neoliberalism He won Republican nomination in 1980 Reagan’s approach to US-USSR relations Reagan had run presidential campaign on strong antianticommunist platform US should resist spread of Soviet influence Reagan Reagan believed that containment was not enough A cowboy at the White House? Communism could be defeated He decided to put Soviets under strong pressure by: Outspending Outspending them on defence Backing Backing their opponents in the developing world Resorting Resorting to economic pressure 3 Defence spending and SDI He increased defence spending, especially on nuclear weapons and navy In In first 3 years spending grew by 40% in real terms In 1983 he launched “Strategic Defence Initiative” Reagan announces the SDI in 1983 SDI SDI to create defensive “shield” capable of arresting incoming missiles With With SDI US would regain nuclear superiority … … and the ability to rely on a "first strike capability" and He confronted USSR with prospect of expensive arms race “Reagan Doctrine” It aimed at helping one’s enemy’s enemies These These could be, for example: Islamic Islamic fundamentalists democrats democrats such as "Solidarity" in Poland rightist rightist groups like the "Contras" in Nicaragua When jihadists were on America’s side US would help anti-communist counter-insurgencies anticounteraround the world He strengthened CIA But But the US also authorised the first sale of arms to China Despite Reagan’s tough approach … Reagan’s strategy was a mix of “stick and carrot” In early 1980s he proposed a “zero option” US US would avoid deploying Pershing/Cruise in WE if USSR dismantled SS-20s SSTempting the Soviet bear … Moscow rejected “zero option” It also rejected another of Reagan’s ideas: START ("Strategic Arms Reductions Talks") In 1982 Reagan deployed Pershing/Cruise 4 Confronting the USSR … Reagan’s diplomacy was confrontational Relations between US and USSR worsened After After initial caution, USSR concluded: détente détente was now over Reagan Reagan was a deeply disturbing figure Andropov (1982-4) & Chernenko (1984-5) with Brezhnev Andropov feared that US was planning surprise attack Able Able Archer 83 Andropov’s and Chernenko’s deaths made negotiations difficult to start Mikhail Gorbachev (1931-) Ronald Ronald Reagan (1916-2004) (1916Born near Stavropol He He was a surprise choice One of the youngest members of Politburo Born of a peasant family University graduate A reformist at the Kremlin USSR’s economic malaise In 1985 USSR was experiencing severe economic problems Economic stagnation technological technological backwardness inefficiency inefficiency and corruption in USSR’s large bureaucracy US-USSR rivalry had been a costly affair for Moscow US- A reformist at the Kremlin By By 1980s defence burden 3 times bigger than that of US GDP GDP only 1/6 the size of America’s US military build-up and USSR’s inability to match it build- 5 The Gorbachev revolution “Perestroika” introduced market elements into planned economy Decentralisation decisionDecentralisation of decision-making SelfSelf-management in industry Encouragement Encouragement of private initiative Gorbachev’s tough road ahead Perestroika opposed by sections of bureaucracy, military and intelligence Gorbachev tried to mobilise public support for reforms through “glasnost” “Glasnost” encouraged a more open debate Gorbachev’s “New Thinking” in foreign policy Domestic reforms could not succeed without radical defence cuts USSR USSR spent nearly 25% of GDP on defence Cuts could not take place without relaxation in EastEastWest relations To achieve this aim Gorbachev sought to: Mikhail Gorbachev with Ronald Reagan Engage Engage with West and diminish Cold War tensions Reduce Reduce military/economic aid to former Soviet allies Allow Allow for political change in Eastern Europe The “Gorbachev factor” Arrival of Gorbachev changed course of US-USSR USrelations But it would also change course of Cold War In August 1985 Gorbachev began to shake things up ABM missile near the Red Square in Moscow In Geneva he proposed halving nuclear arsenals SDI SDI was the "sticking point" In Gorbachev Reagan found a leader "he could talk to" 6 Gorbachev’s far-reaching proposals In January 1986 Gorbachev offered: to to scrap all INF system in Europe other other nuclear weapons by end of century In October 1986 (in Reykjavik) he reiterated earlier earlier offers proposed proposed to extend ABM for 10 years offered offered to make concessions on verification of these agreements Gorbachev and Regan starts talking In In April 1987 he offered to scrap SS-12 and SS-23 SSSSmissiles Reykjavik summit (Oct 1986) Despite far-reaching Soviet proposals, Reykjavik farsummit failed Reagan Reagan ready to eliminate “nukes” over 10-year period 10- But he would not accept USSR proposals as long as Gorbachev insisted demanding end of SDI Reagan and Gorbachev in Reykjavik Despite failure, the summit signalled significant change The The summit laid the ground for a breakthrough on future arms control INF Treaty (Dec 1987) Breakthrough finally came in Dec 1987 USSR and US agreed to eliminate all INF systems This meant that USSR gave up about 1750 missiles to US’ 850 Reagan and Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty Included "on site" verification The agreement represented the first real cut in nuclear arsenals SALT I had merely established "ceilings" INF = Intermediate Nuclear Forces = missiles with a range between 500 and 5500 km 7 The Cold War is nearing its end INF treaty was a milestone in US-USSR relations US- After this, optimism permeated US-USSR relations US- In 1988 Gorbachev & Reagan met for the last time No No progress on strategic arms reductions They They signed 7 agreements on minor matters Reagan and Gorbachev in the Red Square in 1988 Cold War appeared to be over Gorbachev’s major initiatives in FP Negotiations with US to reduce tensions were very important But there were other important initiatives: Withdrawal Withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 Pressure Pressure on Vietnam to withdraw from Cambodia Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan Abandonment Abandonment of naval base at Cam Rahn Bay in Vietnam in 1990 Withdrawal Withdrawal of 200,000 troops from Mongolia and Central Asia Withdrawal Withdrawal of 500,000 troops from EE in the late 1980s End of Soviet rule in Eastern Europe Gorbachev’s address to the UN in 1988 He hoped it would become “ exact opposite of Churchill’s famous Fulton speech” He did not want to create a revolution Impact of Gorbachev’s policies on EE in British press He He hoped that communism could survive in EE But But his policies provoked chain reaction in EE In 1989-90 communist regimes collapsed in EE 1989- 8 Collapse of the USSR (1991) In spring 1990 “Baltics” declared independence In summer 1990 Ukr, Arm, Turk and Tajik declared sovereignty (not yet independence) In early 1991 Gorbachev’s “Union Treaty” proposed to loosen ties between the republics The USSR and its ‘heirs’ Russia Russia & other republics boycotted vote On 25 Dec 1991 Gorbachev resigned USSR broke up into 15 republics Conclusions No-one predicted end of Cold War No- Even in late 1980s policymakers uncertain about outcome of Gorbachev’s policies Fears Fears of a return to the past ‘Gorby’ is in trouble When the end came, euphoria in the West With no East-West confrontation, world appeared as a Eastbetter place Dangers, however, were lurking 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/10/2011 for the course ARTS 1810 taught by Professor Andreabenvenuti during the Three '09 term at University of New South Wales.

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