ARTS 1810 - Lecture 81111 [Compatibility Mode]

ARTS 1810 - Lecture 81111 [Compatibility Mode] - British...

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Unformatted text preview: British Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten announcing India’s independence in 1947 Dr Andrea Benvenuti AARTS 1810 International Relations in the XX century Decolonisation and the rise of the Third World Semester I, 2008 Introduction Superpower rivalry not the only “game in town” Changes in European empires also important Rapid “decolonisation” between 1945-70 1945- Seismic Seismic change/struggle to build a new int. order Decolonisation Decolonisation formed part of a broader shift in global balance of power India celebrates independence in 1947 It It signalled: Decline Decline of European powers Emergence Emergence of the “Afro-Asian” world “Afro- Lecture plan The “imperial phenomenon” British and French imperialism The The “Japan effect” Decolonisation as a phenomenon Malaya celebrates its independence in 1957 The “first wave” IndiaIndia-Pakistan The The Palestine problem and Arab-Israeli enmity Arab- The The “second wave” and the implications of decolonisation 1 The European Empires in the XX century European expansion began in XVI Between late XIX/early XX century Europe expanded more rapidly than at any other time Empires product of A view on British imperialism Industrial Industrial Revolution … Europe’s Europe’s consequent lead in technology/weapons By 1914, 79% of the world’s land surface was under control of a few European powers plus the US and Japan Europe became a powerhouse generating trade and commerce The causes of imperial expansion Three explanations for mid-XIX century European midexpansion: Economic Economic Markets Markets for industrial production Markets Markets for capital Raw Raw materials Strategic Strategic Military Military bases British soldiers in Mumbai (1947) Prevent Prevent other powers from controlling certain areas Political Political Prestige Prestige National National pride The British empire British empire was the largest one Its constitutional make-up varied considerably makeColonies, Colonies, protectorates, dominions “White Dominions” had large degree of autonomy The British empire in the XX century In In 1931 the “Statute of Westminster” made the Dominions independent Protectorates were formally independent but under British control 2 The British empire in the interwar years After WWI UK faced: economic economic difficulties rise rise of nationalist movements Several factors contributed to raise of nationalism Military/economic Military/economic exploitation of colonies Principle “selfPrinciple of “self-determination” Islamic Islamic resurgence Marxist Marxist ideology espoused by USSR Indian troops marching through France in 1914 UK pushed to adopt more “flexible” colonial policy UK felt that: selfself-government unavoidable in the long run repression counterrepression counter-productive UK could retain political/economic influence without direct control The French empire French empire was the only empire comparable to UK’s French colonial system was more centralized than UK’s The case of Algeria France also pursued cultural/political assimilation France was opposed to “self-government” “self- French colonial possessions (in dark blue) Japanese imperialism In XX century Japan joined “imperial race” Westernization of Japan and imperial expansion Popular belief that markets and raw materials were necessary for Japan’s survival Japan’s Japan’s expansion: In 1894In 1894-95 it occupied Korea/Taiwan In In 1910 it annexed Korea Japanese forces in Manchuria In In 1905 it occupied Port Arthur (Lushun) In In 1931 it occupied Manchuria/began expansion into China In In WWII Japanese expansion into SEA The The “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” Co- 3 The impact of WWII WWII had great impact on colonialism Japan showed imperial powers were not invincible Japan stimulated rise of local nationalism by: devolving devolving some power to local elites or The fall of Singapore in 1942 encouraging antiencouraging anti-colonialist propaganda Strong indigenous nationalism after WWII (but not everywhere) This made it difficult for colonial rule to be rereestablished Decolonisation: a complex phenomenon “Anti“Anti-colonial movements” important in producing change But to what extent did they determine pace of change? Did Did colonial powers only speed up transfer of power in response to growing nationalism? Or was international situation also important in determining transfer of power? Indian nationalist leader Jawaharlal Nehru And what about metropolitan considerations? Decolonisation: a need for a framework Historians have come up with different explanations for decolonisation 3 explanations have been formulated: Nationalist/Peripheral Nationalist/Peripheral International International Malayan newspaper announcing independence Metropolitan/domestic Metropolitan/domestic 4 The nationalist/peripheral explanation “Nationalist” explanation provides attractive theory of colonial change It argues: Nationalism Nationalism primary factor in forcing imperial powers to disengage Indigenous Indigenous upheavals invariably set pace for change Nationalist disturbances pushed self-government to selftop of political agenda But are they sufficient to explain decolonisation? What What about places where nationalism was weak? Unanswered Questions •How did colonial powers respond? •By negotiation or force? The metropolitan/domestic explanation Imperial retreat has also been explained in terms of domestic/metropolitan politics After all, decisions to stay or go were taken by colonial powers “Metropolitan” explanation has focused on domestic (often economic) constraints … … and calculations of national interests, for instance: How How did colonies contribute to the imperial system? Nehru and the “father” of Pakistan Jinnah What What imperial model did the colonial power adopt? ‘Assimilationist’ or less so? The international explanation “International” explanation emphasises role of superpowers in affecting decolonisation Both superpowers were anti-colonial in outlook anti- US opposed to empires/sphere of influence But with onset of Cold War US began to prop up British/French empires Unanswered question US support was important to shield European empires against communist intervention • Why did decolonisation occur, in the first place? MarxistMarxist-Leninist ideology anti-colonialist anti- 5 Britain and the first wave of decolonisation In the late 1940s UK granted independence to India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma Loss of India produced transfer of power in the rest of South Asia In India and Burma, UK was forced by strong nationalist movements to grant independence Decolonisation in British South Asia In Ceylon, UK had greater room for manoeuvre … … and it sought to favour a moderate leadership against more radical options Britain and the first wave of decolonisation UK’s UK’s departure from India hugely symbolic Faced Faced with nationalist pressures and Hindu-Muslim Hindurivalries, London decided to get out ‘The Indian Test’ according to Low In In Feb. 1947 the Attlee govt announced withdrawal by June 1948 It It was an attempt to urge factions to agree on a mechanism to achieve independence India India and Pakistan established (1947) Palestine The UK had no intention to abandon Mideast UK’s policy aimed to Protect Protect UK’s oil fields/pipelines in Persian Gulf Keep Keep control on UK’s naval bases along Red Sea Steady number of Jews migrated to Palestine Zionists Zionists pushed for a Jewish homeland Balfour Balfour declaration (1917) Tensions between Jews and Arabs grew overtime Clouds are gathering over “John Bull” Some facts & figures Palestine as a British “Mandate” 1.3 million Arabs In 1939 UK imposed severe limits on Jewish immigration 600,000 Jews 6 Palestine (1947-48) The immigration issue UK’s UK’s 1939 limit: 1,500 Jews a month Jewish Jewish Agency demanded unrestricted immigration Terrorist Terrorist campaign by Haganah and Irgun in late 1945 In Apr 1947 UK put problem in hands of the UN Bevin is dumping “Palestine” in the lap of UN UNSCOP (UN Special Committee on Palestine) for “partition” for Partition Partition plan endorsed by General Assembly in Nov 1947 UK were not prepared to implement the plan It announced withdrawal from Palestine by May 1948 Partition plan Jewish state to comprise 56% of Palestine Arab state to comprise 43% Jerusalem “internationalised” Israel and the first Arab-Israeli war (1948-49) With UN acceptance of partition, situation worsened rapidly The Jews soon gained control over areas allocated to them On 14 May 1948 Israeli independence declared On 15 May Syria, Egypt, Iraq and Jordan attacked Israel The first Arab-Israeli war formally ended in 1949 ArabBen Gurion reads Israel’s declaration of independence The massive refugee issue 70% 70% Arab Palestinians fled or were expelled Majority Majority settled in Gaza & West Bank Remainder Remainder in neighbouring Arab States British colonial policy: an assessment First wave persuaded UK that decolonisation was unstoppable UK UK had to ensure that transfer of power run smoothly … … and according to British interests and “Commonwealth project” aimed at that British influence should be retained Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference in 1951 Cold War considerations at work: If If UK granted independence too soon, new states would be unstable If If UK granted independence too late, local goodwill would be compromised 7 The case of France and Holland Holland/France proved to be less accommodating Both Both suffered a marked loss of prestige during WWII They saw restoration of empire in North Africa & SEA as vital to their rehabilitation Dutch struggle to keep control over Indonesia Unlike UK in SA, France chose to fight in Indochina Indochina be longest/bloodiest of the conflicts born out of decolonisation Towards a new world … Opposition to colonialism grew stronger in 1950s UN became the forum where colonial powers became exposed to virulent criticism The “Bandung Conference” in 1955 condemned colonialism Nehru speaks at the United Nations Growing anti-colonialism forced colonial powers to antiaccelerate pace of decolonisation The second wave of decolonisation in the 1960s Decolonisation and the Cold War UK’s aims in decolonising ended with mixed results A number of newly independent states looked at USSR In In the 1960s Khrushchev wooed developing countries USSR USSR provided a model Economic Economic planning Decolonisation and the Cold War for Daily Express Visceral antiVisceral anti-colonialism The process wasn’t uniform. Some maintained close links with the West Developing world caught in the Cold War rivalries 8 Developing world after Decolonisation Political independence Some countries have done well, other haven’t Marxist scholars have blame it on continuing ‘dependency’ on the West The rich and the poor world Various are the reasons: Lack Lack of training/skills Dependency Theory Economies often reliant on export of one/two farm products Economies Ethnic/religious Ethnic/religious rivalries Economic backwardness is the result of the deliberate actions of Western capitalism. Corruption/ruthless elitesCorruption/ruthless elites-dictators Economic Economic mismanagement Because its interest lay in exploiting commodity exports of developing countries, the West has blocked any pattern of economic development incompatible with its interest 9 ...
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