ch1 - Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1st Ed. Nivaldo Tro...

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1 Chemistry: A Molecular Approach , 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Parts of this powerpoint were were composed by Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Scientific Method 3 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge From Specific to General Understanding Hypothesis – a tentative interpretation or explanation for an observation c falsifiable – confirmed or refuted by other observations c tested by experiments – validated or invalidated, never proven 4 From Observation to Understanding • a theory is a general explanation for the manifestation and behavior of nature c models c pinnacle of scientific knowledge c validated or invalidated by experiment and observation • when similar observations are consistently made, it can lead to a Scientific Law c a statement of a behavior that is always observed c summarizes past observations and predicts future ones c Law of Conservation of Mass
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2 5 Scientific Method 6 milkmaids did not generally get smallpox The Beginnings of Immunology: Edward Jenner -Referred to as 'Father of Immunology'. -In 1796 he helped eradicate Smallpox -A disease in which when exposed, 60% of people caught and 20% of those died Observation: Noted the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Hypothesis: An infection by cowpox imparts immunity from smallpox. Test: Infect an individual with the puss from a cowpox lesion. Wait for infection to run its course. Determine susceptibility to smallpox Results: Well, he is referred to as the ‘Father of Immunity’ 7 Food Science • Throwing something together b Hypothesis • Your grandmother’s time-tested recipe b Scientific Theory. 8 How would you use the scientific method to investigate the following idioms? • A Bird In The Hand Is Worth Two In The Bush • A Fool And His Money Are Easily Parted • A Picture Paints a Thousand Words • Actions Speak Louder Than Words • Every Cloud Has A Silver Lining: • Step on a Crack Break Your Mother’s Back
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3 9 Classification of Matter States of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes 10 Structure Determines Properties • the properties of matter are determined by the atoms and molecules that compose it 1. composed of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms 2. colorless, odorless gas 3. incombustible 4. does not bind to hemoglobin carbon dioxide 1. composed of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom 2. colorless, odorless gas 3. burns with a blue flame 4. binds to hemoglobin carbon monoxide 11 CO Poisoning • Hemoglobin is protein that has four oxygen binding sites. • The binding of certain gases to hemoglobin is referred to as cooperative. Binding to one site increases the oxygen affinity of the remaining three sites. • CO increases the affinity for oxygen, beyond the
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ch1 - Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1st Ed. Nivaldo Tro...

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