Chapter 2 Questions - Chapter 2 Developmental Theories...

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23 Chapter 2 Developmental Theories INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 explored the subject of human development and critiqued several research methods used in the study of various aspects of human development. Chapter 2 provides an in-depth analysis of major theoretical perspectives in regard to human development. The chapter presents a detailed discussion of the following: Psychoanalytic theories. These illustrate the importance of early experience in personality development and the role of unconscious motivation. Freud’s psychosexual stages, as well as Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development, are examined within this context. Behavioral theory. This stresses the part that learning plays in inducing individuals to act in the ways that they do. Skinner’s basic tenets in regard to this perspective are highlighted. Cognitive theory. This draws our attention to the importance of various mental capabilities and problem-solving skills that equip people with potent adaptive skills. Piaget’s cognitive stages are examined within this context. Cognitive learning. This emphasizes the information processing ability that allows individuals to perform discrete mental operations on incoming information and then store it for later processing. Ecological theory. This looks at the interaction between the individual and the environment. Bronfenbrenner adds that development must be understood as the person immersed in a web of social, physical, and cultural spheres. Sociocultural theory. The view that individual development must be aided by social interactions is presented in this section. Controversies. Several important controversies are presented to increases student understanding of the distinctions among the major theories of human development.
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Chapter 2 Developmental Theories 24 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing Chapter 2, you should be able to: 1. Define theory , and describe the functions that a theory serves. 2. Explain the central view of psychoanalytic theory and state Freud’s view of the role of the unconscious. 3. Briefly describe Freud’s five psychosexual stages. 4. Distinguish between Erikson’s psychosocial and Freud’s psychosexual development theories.
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Chapter 2 Developmental Theories 25 5. Name Erikson’s nine stages of development, and describe the approximate time period during which each psychosocial stage occurs and the type of life crisis experienced. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 6. Discuss the focus of behavioral theory , name its major proponents, and explain the significance of the following terms: focus and proponents of behavioral theory stimulus response classical conditioning operant conditioning reinforcement behavior modification
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Developmental Theories 26 7. Explain the key concepts of humanistic psychology hierarchy of needs self-actualization 8. Summarize what is meant by cognitive theory 9. Define the roles of the following as they relate to the process of cognitive development. schema
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This note was uploaded on 07/10/2011 for the course KIN 321M taught by Professor Jensen during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 2 Questions - Chapter 2 Developmental Theories...

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