Chapter 10 Notes - 1 2 3 4 5 Child Growth and Development...

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11/3/2010 1 Child Growth and Development Chapter 10: Cognitive Development In Early Childhood Piagetian Approach: The Preoperational Child Symbolic function Understanding objects in space Understanding causality Understanding of identities and categorization Number Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought Egocentrism Conservation Irreversibility Cognitive Advances During Early Childhood* Use of symbols Understanding of identities Understanding of cause and effect Ability to classify Understanding of number Theory of mind Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought (according to Piaget) Centration (inability to decenter) Irreversibility Focus on states rather than on transformations Transductive reasoning Egocentrism Animism Inability to distinguish appearance from reality Symbolic Function Ability to use symbols or mental representations that has attached meaning Words Numbers Images Symbols allow us to: Communicate verbally Make change Read maps Treasure photos of distant loved ones Think about something without having the person or thing present Symbolic function demonstrated by: Deferred imitation Pretend play (fantasy play, dramatic play, imaginary play) Language Understanding of Objects in Space Older preschoolers can now use simple maps 60% of 4-year-olds can use a simple map to find or place an object at the corresponding location in a similarly shaped but much larger space 90% of 5-year-olds can perform the same task Understanding Causality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
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11/3/2010 2 Piaget said children not yet able to reason logically about cause and effect Not sure what caused the effect Transductive thought Link two events whether there is a causal relationship Particularly if the events were close in time Boy, Trix, the flu Understanding Identities and Categorization Identities: people and things are basically the same even if they change in form, size or appearance Categorization (classification): child must be able to identify similarities and differences By age 4, many can classify by two criteria Color Shape Living/non-living things Animism: attribute life to objects that are not alive Preschoolers know that plants and animals grow, decay, get injured, heal Culture affects beliefs Japanese view stones as if alive with feelings Two Years of Age Categorizing Animals: Age 2 Categorizing Food : Age 2 Three Years of Age Categorizing Food and Animals: Age 3 Categorizing Food: Age 3 Four Years of Age Categorizing Food: Age 4 Categorizing Pictures: Age 4 Seven Years of Age Categorizing Food: Age 7 Number Karen Wynn suggests infants as young as 4/5 months have rudimentary concept of number Ordinality: comparing quantities More Less Begins 12 – 18 months Limited to very few objects Age 4: words for comparing quantities
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Chapter 10 Notes - 1 2 3 4 5 Child Growth and Development...

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