BELUM_Arif S_Prosedur LEM yg cepat dan efisien

BELUM_Arif S_Prosedur LEM yg cepat dan efisien - Pam and...

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Unformatted text preview: Pam and Efficsiem Pmcedwefi far Siahifity finafiya’ég aging Generafimd Limit Equiéfibrium Meihad g Araei‘i a Adégwmag and i Mfg ABSTRAET (Sandra! um Equéiibrium Mather} (GUS) and Izmim's Generafiised Procedure: 92“ Sims (6315) are two iimét equilibrium methacfis in 320m: stabfimy analysis which gatisfy {xii aquiiéhrium cmdiiions. Nummmi difficultias msasiatad with {base methuds Mum Emmi m an ynreasmahie {actor of saffiy, an unrealisiic thrust Eine and fiber compumtmn probifima Therefarc, these madmds are no? amenabic Em Enigmatic search prcccdums to idcmify the cfiticai faiium sur‘fam um mw‘ their use is gmwmfiiy iimiiaé mly is the analysis mfg singic sufiace. ‘ Naw procedures Wares daveEowé "m warming numnfical diffic‘uiiiafi assocéaied with Ehe mm gancmlisa} zwzthoés. A caszzpufex‘ code incurpomiéng the new gamccdurcs was written mid imam, The: new dwainpmeni allows for fast and {afficiccm use of GLE and GPS memoés to {and criticai fafiure surface: WM“: Elm Ecwesi facinr cf safaéy. The: pragmm is aim able in perferm iimjt equiEibz‘ium anaiysig using oihcr wclbkmwn mafiwds, ENTROBUCTION Limii 6513:1153me i3 the: mom pspular stabifity analyzzig method in am} Shapes. Mzmy open cast. Goa} mines in indenasia and cEsawhsre have averburden and interburden censészing of 3m; and 50é§~iike materials, and fiber stabééity analysis of the pi: WM} after: rely haavik on {his methad. Generai Limifi Equiiibdum Methafi {GLE} and Ianbu’s Generalised Freeware: {If Slices (GPS) are [we limit equiiibmzm meths‘ds that satisfy 3%! equiéibrfium canditians. Om (1f their advantages is that {hey can hemdie gfinemE (Cimuiar and new circular) failure surfams. Howevar‘, any mathed which satisfy an equilibrium condfitmns aways create a statitaih indetamainate prebéem. and t9 solve: ii: men: are aggociated numerical dié‘fimxmcs. in Emit squiiibdum mathad, these: Often him} 10 an unreasonable: facior of safety, an unrealistic {hmsi Kim: and ether campumtion probéemfi. Therefore, these, methods are no: suitabzc for aummatic failur: surface genamtim. The use of {bases mews campltzx mezzhods i3 gcncmiiy limited 0an so {he analysix cf :3 singk faiium surfacs. For mampie‘ the awiication 0f the GPS maihed mquims the. 53:: :0 assume a Iocatim for the thms£ line‘ This assumpmn may seem inmixévdy easy, but in the 935%, the camputations an: very sensitive in {his Eocatian and cm often Read is; faiium in convargéng to a succassful saiufiien for (he’ifacier of safety (Sharma, 1996)» The same: is true: fur the GLE mezhmi, 0f whfich the Spencar mazhad and the Mmgcnszcm—Pfice metmd aré special wsesn Shzfima‘s impicmentmian of numerical precadziras to solve GLE and GPS mefihodg in (he: XSTABL campuéar cede Es m3! yet satisfactcrry. The faiiowing is {330th from Shanna, 1996: The main difficuizy in using GL5 procedure is miczlca’ {a aim rgquiremcn! that the: user writ}! fire rciz’abiis'fiv and ‘reasanabienem’ offhe caicufawd F05. Thu additional complexity pmvenm £56 general use (if the GL1? methodfi)? amamtic 36am}: procedures that aiiempé‘ :0 Mann}? Ehe criliwlfaiiwm mgface {p 357,}. E. Graduate, Mining Engmmfing Bapwrmnt ~ Bandung Enstémm of Technology. Jam}: Grimm 1G. Bandmg 40332: lndofieséa. 2‘.) Samar Thesis Advisers, Mining Engineering Dcpanmcm ‘ Bandung ‘ inshimm 02' chhaolagy. 39.2mm Omega :0. Bandung 40132? fndanesiaz Third Ragionai APCQM Symmsium fire mahéd’s 253425 30515.33 Camfiiflffi figuiiibe‘iizm an? mare mmfnigx mid sabmqwsaffy raquire sf? mum": grmzer’ 5m; {if mséersfwuféng far SE4€CC€J£5JHy guessing we stabifia‘y (2f sifipes. Tr‘zg user ghaidii mm; 11%;! {he ailxrflericai dzfliwffias sxperiwced wizix Mae 55mg)???“ Bishop {0}“ .y'méa) madam! wmily é’wd {a mm}; mm??? serious pmééems m the Spmcer 0r Mmgmfiemw Pram pracecimes. These mmmicaf {smefiiem after; intensafv and may {eaa’ f5; ssrarezzmméfe F633 and ma unreaéfisiéc shmsi Ems. 524d: numa‘ricai dzlfficuities genaraffy Ifmi: file {£56 Qf draw more mmpégx nmilwdx £0 zhé: analysis {if sizzgie 5:559:66: «mix as Mesa? meihaays {it} 315:: appear szaéfaéies far {lawman}: surface gmemfim‘i and wzalysés (p 392}. New precedums [a avemome mmmx‘icafi difficuéties in ma QLE and G335 warheads have bean {fisvfioped in EMS amdy, "FE/my am: impismfimm and {asmd in a mw cmmpmer cede. The mm fiaveiapmeszt aliow fr»: 1mm and effiaécm L236 cf {3M3 arm? GPS mfithads m fimj m’ticai failure: Safiase with the: iwwesi {aw}? (sf safeiy. in additimi m the, m0 memmis (3356115sz aha pragram is abie m gaffonn Emit equilibrium ana‘iysis using ether waifi known maiheds such as Simplified Bishup Maimjd. $832993; Rigamus Meme L Janfia’s; Simplified Mcimd§ Lowe: and Karafiath’s Maflwd am the Corps Of fingmfiet’s i"\fi€:¢;h0£§a m addition {a (he: Ordinary Method 43f Sliccg. REVIEW {BF LEMIT EQQILIBREUM METEGD In the iémi: gquiiébmim methogt {ha potantéai {3832's wrfacc must b6 dctermined first. The: sliding mass is: may; divifiad mm :1 smaller slices, 30% Figxm: 1. A 362mm sysmm {3? frames wagging an each siica is shown in Figure: 2? The mm: firm in Fégum 33 connects ghe paints of appiimzion 6f {Em iniarslim {flags 2;: En the, Ianbu’s GPS mathod the ioaaiien 66’ {he :hms: fine is assumady and campieta gquifibn’am can be: Safiisfied rigamiigiy if the use: sclscts the (zones: ihmst §ifi€._l§1 the: GUS, mafia! mica: Eccatim can be: dammimd :13ng a rigamus; methoé a? amEyséa aha: satisfies campEctz‘; equilibréum {Hmfiumi and Rahaidji}; 13}93). waiter FIG 1 » fiiscretisatfion <3?" séérfing mass 'mm Slims in the: limit equéiéhflum method Kafgoofiéa WA! ?“ ~ 3 Gmambe! #998 $223 S ARIEF‘ G ADISOMA and ! ARE? factor of safmy «available strength in" C m N’ tang!) Sm 2:: mobilised sfiangth Ua z: pare water force: Ufl : surface watgzr fame W : weighi of siice N’ m effectiva normai farm Q m extsmai surcharge kV r: verticai geismic caefficicm kh a horimntal seismic: mafficiem 2L :3 hafi inmsiice fame ER m righé inicrsiicc farce: 53L 3 Eat“: intersiice farce; magic QR w right inierslica farce: angia HL 3 insight 20 form 23;, HR : insight to farm ER (3:. :2 inciinatian 0f 53m base: ,8 a indinatim Gf giice mg; 2) x width 0f siica h :2 avgraga Might: 0f siéce: E26 3 height ta mmmid 52f 513C262 F36 2 — Syfitem of {moss Mdng on a typical siim, The equatiana semis: 0f 2;: {area aquilibfiums in two directioag, :2 moment squilihrfiums and n MothmfiGmb reiatienships ‘DéiWEEH shear suength and mama} diesfive stmas. Th3 unkflowns are: n normai forces at the base 0f stice and its 12 locaiians‘, n 517%,? farms at the bass 0f slice, (mi) intersiim fogcas; (nu?) locaiien of interslim force or {hmst line, (734’) inierslice farce imiinaiien mg}?q and i facim a? salhty. Harms? fer the system abm’e (here are: 4:: equations and {6&3} unkrmwm, making the 501mm!) staticafiy indefgménata A saluzion is possibk: fifths number of unknuwns £2111 b6 reduced by making 30mg simplifymg assgmptionst A common assumptisn is {km the magma} farce 21: the base of siice mm at tbs midpaing thus reducing the number 3f unknowns in (5n~2}. The? {m2} additiaml assumptions required is; make 612 pméfiem staticafiy (fieiemmate generaiiy emcgon‘se the availabie methods of anaiysis {Shmmau 1996). GENERAL LEE/HT EQUILEBRHIM {GLE} METHDD The: GLE fommaden smompasma mas: Of the assumptions of aha“ Eimii cguiiibfium methads, and satififieg a}? aquélibrium condiaionsv It can be mad :0 anaiysc general (it: circular and mm— circular) faiiurc: surfaccs. A3 a result, it has became (ma 9? {he most popuiar methods. By assuming a fimczicm m desm'bc the distribution of the: interslics fem: angles. a discrete versinn of the Mmganstemwf’fice pmcgdura may bi: modaied‘ QEherwise, the ‘pencer meihod can be dimtziy impicmemed by using a consiam ‘_,_An,..3t€f5“CE fem: fimmicm‘ 124 Kaégooflie, WA. 7 — S3 Omsambaf 1998 The GLE madam fannmamé in Shanna {£996} adfipm a function 8; a: A .fix;} it) asségn the imfitmice mm angie (33‘: the 1m» and righbhand side 9f slim: i (see Figure 2} it: this may? a slightly different 8; x mm: [A . fixiji is QSEfi. The flmciém‘aflxé} rangezs imiwmn (1 am! X and tepmsems m6 shape 0? {has «fistz‘ibmmn {hat dasm‘bss the varéaiéma 0? ma inmrslim farm angfics (Figure 3). The adnpzian 0? Elm fixrzctiea £3; Smisfics (mi) assumptisns far aha intersiim fama angies. The 3‘, vaém: is an additional mkmwn immduced t0 comma-ti the raquixiic {i102} unknowns. $136: formmation balm; clasaiy {SHOWS that at)? Shame {3 996}. Fame: aqusizbrimm if} adirection paraflai m the {was if)?” fifiifh slices: 3“ + zbcosmfih) n Zacoséaven} v Ufisémmmfi} « Qsinm—fi) ~ Wk“ {:95 C2 ~ Wfivkj sin a: a 9: (3} and the mahiiistsd sarength {adopting QM Mails-Cmmmb strangth criterianfi: S m CH? (an Q '” F acawé'mn 4% € 3“») N»! Subszimfing Equatéan :2 mm Equaticfi E gives; N' tan (pm 2 A cos (a v 8,.) — films (0:; ~ Gk) + W HHS} sina¢khcesm3~Cm+L3asmm~§)+Q$§rz(u«5} (3} Yhénfi Ragivnaé AWJGM Symposésgm A W 2: ‘7 g, ”N. E 1 f(x} 3 cmslam ' g z: 2 (Spenmr‘s Method) :3 :(x) w Rwy-Sine: 2; 5 U... XL. Q _ V M 0 , Ema x morfiinata wrist 3m x cmrtfinata mm i § 3 e 3:: /\ 3‘: ‘3: f 7:” .Q g E / 3 :3.) Kg} w Clippedfiins :3. (:1 <3 _ % ‘ ban a: mrdinam mi 2% x (‘mwfinaw mm? L” 16 3 ~ Examples of functions used m (kscr‘ibe (ha vafiaiian {3f iMeerice fem: angias. Fares: equilibrium in ms: dimmfim normal 30 the base: 9f film 32:13:: N'+ZE Sinm-QR) , ZLsinfierLyWHvkjms m—Ufl» US (3039143) , Q c03€u-§) +ka sin. a =: O {4) By gmbstirutmg Equatign 4 £an Bguatimx 3; the Mien/Eng equiiibn‘um equatkm is remained: ZR : A 2’1L {£03 {£1 ~ 8L} + sin (a ~ 8;} tan $514» W cos a {Hg} {item cam » {an a) + Cm - W RE (i + {an (hm ran at} cm: a: w u {an {pm + MD {:03 (a: - B} Ean <12,“ w sin (a - :33} + Q {COS (c: ~ 5) {an {bm . Siam: w 5}] {5) where the facter A is given by: Axiflcesm‘efifli «Man {pmzmmwegm {6) Mommz equilibrium fat ail sheets is satisfied by taking the momcnt abmlt aha: midpoint of the: 23356: (if sh’cc, and WM yéeéd {ha faliowing equaiim): Z“ (:05 3., {hL ~ bt’fi {cm 0;] + a 3’2 sin 8:. ’ ZR GR [m + E312 m 011+ ZR b/Z m an “ w kn h: 4: ETBhsinB+thianzG <7) Rearranging me: abmla gives the iocatmn of {he ifltersliccz {QFCQ 2‘33, Can Em: right side {:5 aach siice: h: h R 2'1 { L COS 91A ~ b/2{c:os 8L tan (1 ~ sin EMU [ZR (:05 8E] «an [h (Ugsin E + Q 5m 5} w W k: hji {521 ms 8“} ~é- 39/2 {tan 6K w {an a} {8} After the factor 0f saffity (F) and iambda (A) are obiaimd, {ha tom} mrma} Sims; weniczfl stream and shmr simss {0? each siice can be dzicmined using ma failawing equatiims (Shanna, 1996; Morgensiemg 1979}: (I; 2: {£21 air: (a - 3L) w ZK sm (0: .,. 9x) + Uacos (on , £3) = U: 4» Q (:03 {a — <3) + W {{Lk) cosvcw kh sin {1}} i515 sec (X) (‘3) cry a: (W + Q (:03 {‘3 4— U5 cos {3) / {i3 sec 0:} (10‘; iwzcmwz Ga’tan x1)!“ (31} Pmccdurezs devsiopeé in this study 10 Wigwam: A, and £113 facmr of safety F are as faiinws: “ Third Ragiuna! fixPCOM SymWSium FAST AND EFFICFENT PRQCEEEURES FOR SFAEELE’E‘Y ANflLVfX‘EE‘? ,f r 2. Assume: Z}, and hi: far {Em fifst Siica squfiis 1mm 6‘. For the: £33: SEiCfi, if'zs {engim Emmi; if; mama: and 21: i5 fiéisd with water men: Z x: 1/23!” h: {22} Wham: Em 2: heig§3€ of waits: miumn in the temien mask “{w a unit weight sf 5mm: 24: r hydmstaii: farm: actmg in $311: tangim {track If a teasion crack is; aéygtm in the East Mica than Y; 3m 33; equal mm 3, Calcuiate the: intersiiw farce am: im imagimx (the {Emmi fine) {a}: a}; siiczés, aging Equatians 5 and 8 msgééciiwiy. 4, For {ha least siiae, finéegrafa the; inzemlicg farm (ZR). 399mm of me thins: Em (Em) and the 173%me mndifinn ink: :3: functian FEE dafined 3.5 ffiiiows: PHZ x 313th _ z; + am (31,: ~ w; {E3} The function FHZ és a fumcimn 0;? A am? {he safaty {3636:}: 353: Thu functien wiii have a minimum vaiug #:4313333 mm if arid ouiy if 23; a: k and 3m :1 Emu/’3. Saiva Equatim 23 using muEtidimmsimaé omfimiséatim mama}, Wm: mm agitation a5 ma abjecfiive fizzmfim ami with a mnstmim {hat the: facfiim as” safezy must mmmt a positive, vaiue. This E53 den: thmugh a medifiw‘ Neidw Maad optimisatien memod mm a €36me over the gafaiy facing as file: angina} Ncider~Mmfi pfflifiéifié’fi :35 an uncongtrainmfi agtémimtim {€232th L21 EANBU’S GENERIKE‘ESEE‘) F‘ROQEEDEERE GE?” SLECES (GFSE The f0mm§atim if; the GEE maihm‘é cam be mad ms dammim {ha flaw): of 33%;}! €92" the ianbu’s GPS memmi. This: meihgc‘é 2339 has the advantage: cf hamdiing gsnarai failure sus‘fagey as; WCEE as satisfying an mailibmm cmditians. in that (FPS mséhad 23%;:- Eacatiun 9f the {Emmi firm; magi be; msamed. Wit}: mfimarzi fiquilibrium aquatém tazgésfieda the: angk: a? imiénafion {32” EM intersiice farce: can be: defiesmimd» Uséng Equation ”5 derived in the: previaus Sfifiiiefi, eqmiiibfiizm a: the midpaim {2f the base: at" slice is saiisfiafi 3f; Z;a ms 8k {31‘ + M {an a} ~ Z,; 232‘? 55in $3“ a 21.803 9; {hi} w WE {am a} +KLb/2 m 3H” U5 h sinfi«%~{}h 5m §~W kg; fig {34} in (hue above equaiim, 6g is the ME}! tankfiown if 5;, far she: first slim: is; asmmw 3mm The éfitarsiiae fmcssv EL and Z? 6:332 km determinsd Ihmugh Em: €03“ng squilibfium equatfimi Tats what for 95.2. Equation i4 man be: rawn’fien 223 fafiaws: Asin{w—fifi):?§ €733 5‘» and dawmposing yéfiids; A sin w 205 8a v A ms 3;»? sin $3 3: {fig 4% {>32 tan {2:} ms 8,1 ~ bfZ sin 85 (26} while the fighbhanfi sick: of Bquaiisn if; E: equfivaimfi: :0: a a 3x52“ [:05 eh EH. 1 w my: a} + m 2; m a, rag + {Ufih m B + 5m é - w $2,; 21¢ gm {3?} Kaiguame, WA“ 7“ ~ 3 Decemms $898 $25 s ‘8 ARE? 0 ADESGMA um I ART? By equating the: coefficiam (:03 BR dam sin 83 is“; Equatmn 36 we have: A sin \y :2 [E32 + biz 22m {1] (28) A (as w an M2 {29} and mmbmmg the above yéekis: tan :4! x 2M?) + tan (2 20) A’ = {b/LZ)z + {bx + 3/"). (an a); (2!) sin by - :32) :- BiA y (22) 8K :2 i ~ 3m" {BIA} m tan" {Zhsfij + tan a) - gin" (BEA) (23} Procedures daveloped in this papa to miculam the: factor 0f“ safety 51W Janbu‘s SP5 mathcd an: as foiéows: 12. Assuma thé ifimrséice force: 232;, and iis incfination angic 9L for the first siicc equals zero" 2. For ma rest Of the siicas assume a rezssnnabk Enigrs‘fice fame inciinaiion angia. Fa): the lasi Show, 3f a tension crack is gamma! and it is {Med with waiter them: Z a N2 y, h: {24) where: he :2 height (Sf watar whim}: in the mansion crack “(w x uni: waighi at” water 2c : hydmstazic force acting in the tension crack if a tension crack §s absam in the East skies that: Z; md 11:; equai 226m. 4: PM a}? slices {ietemu‘ne the magnitude. of the intezslice fences using Ecumtim: 5. This requires the assumpaion of an Emerslic: fame angie. For initiaé calcuiatifm use the inmmica force angie assumed i1} step 2. Aftarwardg, ibis angk: is caicuiatcd ua‘fixgfiquafion 23. During this 3:92;) ihc calculated éntsrslicc force: angic mus: ba ccastraincd, fog exampie it may n9! axceed 903 If that caésulatefi Entarsiica farm angic excegds the. predcmrmined limit than use inters‘iict‘; fame: angie caEwlated in {he prevéous iteration: 5. PM the 135: slice: integrate: {he immsiice force (Zn) and thc boxmdary canditéon imo a funcimn F2 dafincé as Miami 6, T0 obtain the. fact/m“ 0f safefyi Equation 25 an be safivad using the: SfiCaRt method. ‘ COME’ARESQN ‘WITH THE XSTAEL PROGRAM "I‘m: new pmceduras develapfid in {his stucfiy and impizmfinmd if} a camgmsr program were {vested and vaiidatad agaimz saveral known results (Ariaf. 1998). One M me man: immrtant campan‘sws wag done agains: results {mm the XSTABL pmgram pubiéghed in Shanna (1996}. Figcm t is adapted fmm Sharma {1996‘ p 381), shuwing the: slope modefi used in 3mm (he rcsuits. The shape: gwmamf and sail sirengzh data can be summafised as foliows: *9 shape height a 20 m a shape. angle; 2 2H : EV 3 physical pmpmfim {if Soil: C 2 23.0 km. :13 s: 20‘”, uni: \wight 2 16 Whit} 126 K319031158, WA, 7 . as Became: 1998 The writer m-ordfnams a! the circmiaf faiima surface: i3 M (35.2, 55.0)? which cerrasyemis m wefi‘mams g? {EM}. 26.53:: a? {he toe of {mum-(70$), 40.6) at {has ems: 0f faiium and a radiag (if 38.3 mama’s. A special case: :35 Spencer’s GLE metimd is usm fer commrison, For the 698 method, the assumpiéers f0: Eacaiéfim :35 the: thmsi iine are the foilawifig: {he paim (3f appiicatims {36‘ ms; inmrsiice {was vary limeafly {mm WW3 at XXL m 9 {met {if fins faiium sarfacc} :0 0,255: at x15, a: (3.8, am} fimiiy mmzinatas a“: 0.2}: at ML : 1 (cmfit m? the failure: surfam), Ham 3: Es tha Might af ihc sick: of {he slicm am L is the ciiszanca {mm the, Km” mdinate Of (bf: {06, {X996} 20 me xncovardinatfi 1:»? me was: (mm?) {m the: failure: surface, Baffin: preceedéng to {he mains, it E Wfifihwhiig am appmpzjiate m mantim savatai criiaria fm‘ mmpafisom Tm {Quawing is quotfid from Sharma {5996), my 38338é: Rmiists‘caiiys 65w :fmpe and famiicn 53;” £326 55;} surface within a singer is fima’ammmiiy canlroiled by $er qfiecrive firearm within 332;: $055 mam , Failure surfacéwgffmriva “rem inmmpaéibfiity ix was (2} tire mam?“ cmza‘srm in avaiuafiztg the reasombg’mew (if #:e F05 cmnpuzed Ming 3 rigwww mefiwa’ Sim! fiafigfim compiefta equilibréum. New, file anginaer fitw m pay sperm? {2&6an :0 the remix: wit}: 5;: Wm! m: angering rim: some (if :he pkysé’mi assampta’mm are in}! grossly vioiawd gay the anifiyxis Q Q , f: a}: mysxxriai Jim; Kim engineer reva‘ew 13w dixméwfcm 9f ”reflex. andfames, aimgg figs? $32M!“ waffle? m mail as $523 families: offiee s‘frrmf fine, , . ”I‘hg mgr xiyouid aim E9016 far swam}; changes is: {he dismbmim 0;" m inwrflicgfamm arid grasses ageing («‘25 faifsgres smfaca "flags namwf grasses azfang H‘w sham” myfimg wiff {ypically in: gram” time: has veriémf sirexms in (he iciwer (we) par: 0]" the: Osiopeg {Qtigiz‘izé emphasis from Shanna} Figures 5% and 5 gummame and campfire ihfi mauits (if am: XSTABL program and the new; SSS magma“: deveiflped in Ehia smdyt Bow pmgmms give sciutmns 32:: the Spmcer's {ELLE maihaé (Figure 13) and the: Janhu’s 8P8 mathed {Figure 5)“ The figures indicam iocatimi ()5 {Ext thmsi Ema fiiSiribUliGng a}? {Em énierslica farce magnitude emd mmrsfica farce angic. am? vsfiizai and misrmal ham: stresses. These plats mm? bi: examined m 3355233 the reasonableness of the: safety fattms. Aithaugh the diffarencg ii”: Me mmputcd facms‘ M" safaty is smaii (bass than M3 my cam it): 8% anti aimflst identicai fer GLE), there are: abvimg pmblams in than XSYABL pragmm €62” ‘zhe 3mm made! in thés fixamgfim of whit}; mg 838 ymgram seems 26 have westerns, Thaw pmblfims am; b6 summarised beiow: s The, the (ham line éaiaulatmfi by tha GLE’S Sgenmr memmfi neax’ the {trust is wasted abme mg ground sszrfamo a The, safety {am}? campmatim using Janbg‘g {3?3 memmfi is? wary sensétive :9 {he assumpiiw M §O€Eai§flfi <35“ {has timxsi finm and the: named base mass am fine énmmiécc fem 2323336 fluctuate erraficaily {mm siéca :0 33km, The namra (3f the probism £3 agseniialiy camgutatimmh am: xeiatad to ihés specific exampte it wag Sialfid by Sharma (39%. g: 384) as foliaws; Q r a The: ghmsa‘ 55%er ngnser's methm! ”(ands wizave (he gmwd smfaa‘z ream“ (in? arm! {2] {3m faié’ure mass, This igcctfign ix mimia’wed :mrecxsmable and ES probably 5:46 ta an incempafibiiity {Jemima £526 Mam“ 3:07”:ch and fixes Zs’mi: eqrsiéiéarium ammmprfanx. 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