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ch04 - Chapter 4 Designing Maps Learning and Using...

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Chapter 4: Designing Maps Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 2 Objectives Learn the principle of graphic hierarchy Determine how to use color Understand map symbolization Learn to design maps for different audiences Preview map layers in ArcExplorer’s Catalog
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 3 Objectives (continued) Symbolize maps using ArcExplorer Set map layer properties in ArcExplorer
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 4 Map Design Cartography Art of designing maps Graphic design Choice of symbols, colors, text, patterns, and arrangements of graphic elements in visual display with an aim to achieving communication
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 5 Graphic Hierarchy Put graphic elements that should get the most attention in bright colors, such as red, orange, yellow, green, or blue Put graphic elements that orient you or provide a context for interpretation in drab colors, especially shades of gray Place a strong boundary, such as a heavy black line, around polygons that are important to increase figure Use a coarse, heavy cross-hatch or pattern to make some polygons important, placing them in figure
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 6 Demonstration of Graphical Hierarchy Use of color and edge effects to draw attention to parts of a graphic display All features in figure Circles in figure, squares and lines in ground
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 7 Principle of Minimizing Ink Make every pixel of a graphic design have a purpose Chart junk Graphics with no payoff that clutter up a graphic design and may even be a distraction Example: north arrow when it is not needed Minimize use of color Use color only for truly important elements, such as the graphic hierarchy principle suggests
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 8 Color One of the most effective graphic elements for communication of spatial information Color terms: Hue is the basic color Color value is the amount of white or black in the color Monochromatic color scale is a series of colors of the same hue with color value varied from low to high Saturation refers to a color scale that ranges from a pure hue to gray or black
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  Learning and Using Geographic Information Systems: ArcExplorer Edition 9 Color (continued) Choropleth maps Color-coded polygons that use monochromatic scales or saturated colors to represent the magnitude of numeric attributes Color value represents order in categories, ranging from low to high A key in a legend interprets the colors and magnitude ranges of ordered categories
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ch04 - Chapter 4 Designing Maps Learning and Using...

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