Anatomy test 2 diseases

Anatomy test 2 diseases - Rickets Osteomalacia in children...

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Rickets Osteomalacia in children Osteoid produced by calcium salts not deposited resulting in bones that become soft and weaken Characterized by bowed legs, deformed pelvis, dental problems, muscle weakness Caused by insufficient Ca++ in diet or vitamin D deficiency Treatment – Vitamin D fortified milk and sunshine *Child produces bone but doesn’t have enough calcium in matrix so weight of child makes bone bow out Padgets Disease Excessive and abnormal bone resorption and formation Abnormally high ratio of woven bone to compact bone; reduced mineralization Soft bone can be weak and easily bend, leading to shortening of the affected part of the body. The bone replacement also takes place very quickly and excess bone may be formed. May effect any part of the skeleton but is usually localized in spine, pelvis, femur, skull Rarely seen before 40 years Unknown cause but linked to viral infection Osteoporosis Affects ten million people (20% men) Calcium is responsible for eletrical impulses in brain ½ of postmenaposal women will have osteoporosis related fracture Disuse osteoporosis occurs at any age (because no weight bearing on bones, problem in early space travel) Estrogen used to be used to treat (*megastudies) DEXA (dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) : early diagnosis, measures bone density Genes influence bone density Most susceptible bones at risk of fracture are hip, vertebra, and wrists Entire skeleton replaced every 10 years Peak bone mass at 18, constant till 40, then declines because osteoclast more active and bone formation takes longer than reabsorbtion Bisphosphanate(anti-reabsorbtives) help prevent bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast and destructing them Calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D maintain calcium Tennis Elbow: Lateral epicondylitis (outer part of elbow) The outer part of the elbow becomes painful and tender, usually as a result of a specific strain or overuse Anyone who does a lot of work involving lifting at the elbow or repetitive movements at the wrist is susceptible to tennis elbow Extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon Symptoms o Pain on the outer part of elbow ( lateral epicondyl ). o Gripping and movements of the wrist hurt, especially wrist extension and lifting movements o Tenderness to touch, and elbow pain on simple actions such as lifting up a cup of coffee or throwing a baseball o Pain usually subsides overnight o If no treatment given, can become chronic and more difficult to eradicate
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Treatment o Apply heat and ice in combination o A brace might also be recommended by a doctor to reduce the range of movement in the elbow and thus reduce the use and pain o Stretches and progressive strengthening exercises are essential to prevent re-irritation of the tendon o Local steroid injections o Surgical intervention - The common extensor origin is released from the lateral epicondyle and scar tissue
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2011 for the course NURSING 000 taught by Professor Clark during the Spring '11 term at Alabama.

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Anatomy test 2 diseases - Rickets Osteomalacia in children...

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