Chapter7review -...

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C HAPTER  7 – M ETABOLISM : T RANSFORMATIONS   AND  I NTERACTIONS I. Chemical Reactions in the Body Plants use the sun’s energy to make carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water. This is called  photosynthesis . Humans and animals eat the plants and use the carbohydrate as  fuel  for their bodies.  During digestion, the energy-yielding nutrients are broken down to monosaccharides, fatty acids,  glycerol, and amino acids. After absorption, enzymes and coenzymes can build more complex  compounds. In  metabolism  they are broken down further into energy (ATP), water and carbon  dioxide. A. Anabolism  is the building up of body compounds and requires energy. B.  Catabolism  is the breakdown of body compounds and releases energy. C.  The Transfer of Energy in Reactions 1. A high-energy compound called  adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  is made. 2. Coupled reactions  are chemical reactions that occur simultaneously. D. Reactions occur in the cells, especially the liver cells E. Enzymes and  coenzymes  are helpers in reactions. 1. Enzymes are protein catalysts. 2. Coenzymes are enzyme helpers. 3. Cofactors  facilitate enzyme action. II. Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy The breakdown of glucose to energy starts with glycolysis to  pyruvate . Pyruvate may be converted to  lactic acid   anaerobically  (without oxygen) and  acetyl CoA   aerobically  (with oxygen). Eventually, all  energy-yielding nutrients enter the  TCA cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle (or Kreb’s cycle)  and the  electron transport chain . A.  Glucose 1. Glucose-to- pyruvate  is called  glycolysis  or glucose splitting.     2. Pyruvate’s Options a) Anaerobic  - lactic acid b) Aerobic  - acetyl CoA  3. Pyruvate-to- Lactic Acid   a) Oxygen is not available or cells lack sufficient 
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2011 for the course NURSING 000 taught by Professor Clark during the Spring '11 term at Alabama.

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Chapter7review -...

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