chap 17 - 18 - 1 Notes for test 2 B Chapter 17 Substance P...

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1 Notes for test 2 B Chapter 17 Substance P is released at the point of injury o Ex: If you hit someone with a hammer, wherever the hammer lies is where substance P is released o All skin cells have the ability to release substance P o Target: the central nervous system (the nausea center is in the 4 th ventricle of the brain and the pain center in the lower and cortical levels of spinal reflexes). Renin-Angiotension o Made in the kidney Convert in the liver and lungs They are considered a paracrine releaser of the hormone aldosterone When blood volume is low, the kidneys secrete renin . Renin stimulates the production of angiotensin . Angiotensin causes blood vessels to constrict resulting in increased blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex . Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure Melanocyte- stimulating hormone – is made in the anterior pituitary and the target organ is the skin. The endocrine system has five general functions: o (1) Differentiation of the reproductive and central nervous systems in the developing fetus. o (2) Stimulation of sequential growth and development during childhood and adolescence o (3) Coordination of the male and female reproductive systems; which makes sexual reproduction possible o (4) Maintenance of an optimal internal environment throughout life o (5) Initiation of corrective and adaptive responses when emergency demands occur.
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2 The endocrine glands respond to specific signals by synthesizing and releasing hormones into the circulation, which then trigger intracellular responses. o All hormones share certain general characteristics(page 424): (1) Have specific rates and rhythms of secretion. Three basic secretion patterns are (a) Diurnal, (b) pulsatile and cyclic patterns, (c) patterns that depend on levels of circulating substrates (ex: calcium, sodium, potassium, or the hormones themselves) (2) Operate within feedback systems, either positive or negative, to maintain an optimal internal environment (negative feedback) If I only have a little my master gland (pituitary) would say let’s give it a little more. Positive shuts off when it gets to a magic number Ex: If the blood sugar level is 140, insulin is triggered by level of circulating substances to decrease the blood sugar o Insulin cuts off so that the blood sugar level does not go below 80. o There is a number to cut on and a number to cut off (feedback system). (3) Affect only target cells with specific receptors for the hormone and then act on these cells to initiate specific cell functions or activities. (4) Are constantly excreted by the kidneys or are deactivated by the liver or
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2011 for the course NURSING 000 taught by Professor Clark during the Spring '11 term at Alabama.

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chap 17 - 18 - 1 Notes for test 2 B Chapter 17 Substance P...

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