Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Adaptive/Acquired Immunity rd-3 and...

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Chapter 6 Adaptive/Acquired Immunity -3 rd and last line of defense -develops more slowly than inflammatory response -Specific: can confer permanent or longterm damage against specific antigens (where as inflammatory response is not specific and can react to anything) -the bodies response to an antigen is the immune response -can be induced by a vaccine -the lymphocytes and antibodies work to allow the body to respond and adapt to an insult **Gained after birth as a result of immune responses Active Immunity Passive Immunity Produced by host hours after exposure to an antigen or immunization (long acting immunity) Does not involve host’s immune response— antibodies or T cells are transferred to patient— donor to recipient (short acting immunity) NATURAL: contact with antigen through clinical infection (chicken pox, measles, mumps) NATURAL: transplacental and/or breast milk transfer from mother to child ARTIFICIAL: immunization with live or killed vaccines ARTIFICIAL: injection of antibodies from serum of an immune human (injection of human gamma- globuline, rabies, tetanus, sneak bite) ANTIGENS: Antigen is a substance that elicits an immune response; recognized by the body as foreign or “nonself”. The presence of antigens initiate the immune system Examples: o Infectious: viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites o Noninfectious: pollens, foods, bee venom, drugs, vaccines, transfusions, and transplanted tissues Most antigens are immunogens: will induce an immune response and result in production of antibodies and T cells To be antigenic: part of a molecules chemical structure must be recognized by and bound to an antibody or specific receptors on a lymphocyte o Antigenic determinant (epitope): precise area of the module that is recognized o Antigen binding site (paratope): the matching portion on the antibody or lymphocyte receptor To be immunogenic: must meet certain criteria Foreignness to the host Adequate size Adequate chemical complexity Being present in sufficient quantity o Self antigen: fulfills all criteria except foreignness; does not initiate an immune response; so most individuals tolerant to their own antigens o Large molecules are more immunogenic o Haptans: antigens that are to small to be immunogenic themselves but can be immunogenenic if they attach to large particles o Allergens: antigens that initiate an allergic response
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o Chemically diverse immunogens are usually more immunogenic o High or low extremes of smaller antigens can be immunogenic o Route can affect immunogenicity o Adjuvant: an immunogenic particle that stimulates an immune response attached to a normally not immunogenic particle o Genetic makeup of individual can affect immunogenicity of different antigens ****Modulators**** Exogeneous: (external modulators): trauma, disease, pollutants, radiation, UV light, drugs Endogeneous: (internal modulators): inviduals age, gender (women weaker), nutritional status, genetic background, reproductive status
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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Adaptive/Acquired Immunity rd-3 and...

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