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DISORDERS OF THE URETHRA Urethritis o Inflammatory process usually caused by sexual transmition or inflammation or infection (from trauma, urological procedures, or structural abnormalities) o symptomsL urethral tingling, or itching or burning when urinating; frequency, urcency ot purulent or clear like mucus discharge from urtetra may occur o treatment: antibiotics and avoidance of mechanical irritation Urethral Stricture o Narrowing of the urethra because of scarring Scaring may be congenital but more likely the result of trauma or untreated severe urethral infections o Symptoms: urinary frequency and hesitation, diminished force and size of urine stream, dribbling after voiding and nocturia (peeing at night) o Treatment: usually surgical and may involve urethral dilation or urethrotomoy DISORDERS OF THE PENIS Phimosis, paraphimosis o Penile forskin ot prepuce is too tight to be moved easily over the glans penis o Phimosis: foreskin opening narrow and can not be retracted back over glans Occurs at any age; usually result of poor hygiene or chronic infection o Paraphimorsis: foreskin is retracted and can not be moved to cover glans Surgery must be preforemed to prevent necrosis of the glans caused by restricted blood vessels Peyronie disease o Fibrotic condition that causes lateral curvature of penis during erection o Usually affects middle ages men o Associated with painful erection, painful intercourse for both partners and poor erection distal to curve o Spontaneous remissions occur 50% of time; other options are oxygenation or surgical resection of fibrous plaque Priapism o Prolonged penile erection o Urological emergency Balantitis o Inflammation of the glans penis and usually occurs in conjuction with an inflammation of the prepuce o Associated with poor hygiene and phimosis o Accumulation under the foreskin of glandular secretions, sloughed epithelial cells and mycobacterium can irritate the glans directly or cause infection o Commonly seen in men with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and candidiasis o Antimicrobials and circumcision can prevent Penile cancer o Rare in US o Etiology unknown but likely a result of irradiation caused by smegma beneath a phimotic foreskin DISORDERS OF THE SCROTUM, TESTES, AND EPIDIDYMIS Varicocele o Abnormal dilation of the vein within the spermatic cord; most occur on the left side and maybe painful or tender o Caused from incompetent or congenitally absent valves in the spermatic veins that normally prevent backflow of
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2011 for the course NURSING 000 taught by Professor Clark during the Spring '11 term at Alabama.

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