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Final Exam Renal Notes

Final Exam Renal Notes - 1 Final Exam Renal Notes Renal...

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1 Final Exam Renal Notes Renal Review o 2 fat pads hold kidneys in place o If someone has anorexia or bulimia they lose the fat pad and the kidneys fall down o The kidneys’ blood supply comes from the abdominal aorta and the 2 large renal arteries o Kidneys drain in the renal pelvis o Urine drains from kidneys, through the ureters, to the bladder, and exits the body via the urethra. Epithelial cells in the bladder are very unique Innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems Urine comes from blood (they are equal) No blood = no urine Any disease that affects the vascular system always damages the kidneys o Adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney o The most important function of the kidney is to keep acid base balance Only live within 7.35-7.45 Without proper kidney function, the body is more acidic. Renal failure causes you to be metabolic acidosis. The lungs and kidneys are the two most important structures that regulate acid- base balance and then the liver and skin pick up where they left off Hormones that affect the kidney: o (1) Aldosterone Works in the proximal tubule o (2) ADH Works in the distal tubule o (3) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) 32 amino acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). Works in the loop of Henle and the distal tubule o (4) Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) It is released by muscle cells in the upper chambers ( atria ) of the heart ( atrial myocytes ), in response to high blood pressure. ANP acts to reduce the water, sodium and adipose loads on the circulatory system, thereby reducing blood pressure. Works in the loop of Henle and the distal tubule o Different parts of the nephron are: glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting tubule o The glomerular filtration rate is the filtration of plasma per unit of time which is directly related to the perfusion pressure of the glomerular capillaries. How fast the blood when through the glomerulas and how fast it is filtered. o Should make 30ml of urine an hour o Link table 28-10 on page 774 with table 28-2 on page 779
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2 o Counter current theory – the oncotic pressure(pressure produced by large molecules or proteins that tend to pull things to one side or the other) is different in different parts of the nephron Diffusion, differences b/w arterial and venous pressures, osmosis, and oncotic pressure changes depending on which part of the nephron they are in. Forces that causes the toxins, solute, and electrolytes to leave the blood and go into the urine. o Diet for renal failure is horrible – you can’t have much protein, sugar, or carbohydrates.
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Final Exam Renal Notes - 1 Final Exam Renal Notes Renal...

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