NUR 305 test 1 A

NUR 305 test 1 A - 1 Notes for Test 1 A Acetylcholine is...

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1 Notes for Test 1 A Acetylcholine is released by the brain In the beginning we were one single cell and from that we became 4 proteins, a sugar, and a twist (DNA). Contain 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) Embryo (looks like a fish) - "Aliens" (born before 23 weeks then we have gills). Neonate - a child less than a month old There is a time to be born and a time to die Theory of DNA(Aging) - page 91 Three major mechanisms of aging have retained their appeal or have been extensively tested: (1) cellular changes produced by genetic and environmental-lifestyle factors; (2) changes in cellular regulatory, or control, mechanisms, especially in cells of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous system; and (3) degenerative extracellular and vascular alterations. Somatic mutation hypothesis : proposes that aging is the result of DNA damage, inefficiency to repair, and loss of integrity of DNA synthesis (Most experimental evidence does not support this claim). Catastrophic or error-prone theory : the presence of errors in those enzymes involved in transcription and translation, and thus their own synthesis, leads to an increase in errors and eventually the death of the cell.
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2 Neuroendocrine theory : supports that a genetic program for aging is encoded in the brain and is controlled and relayed to peripheral tissues through hormonal and neural agents. Possible mechanisms include (1) increased hormonal degradation, (2) decreased rate of hormonal synthesis and secretion; and (3) decreased target-organ sensitivity related to the number of cellular receptors for hormonal ligands, ligand-receptor binding, or ligand internalization. Ligands are hormones. Cells become specialized through the process of differentiation, or maturation, so that some cells eventually perform one kind of function and other cells perform other functions. From the beginning and to the end, you are a set of cells that are differentiated The eight chief cellular functions: (1) Movement: muscle cells can generate forces that produce motion. (2) Conductivity: a response to a stimulus is manifested by a wave of excitation, and electrical potential that passes along the surface of the cell to reach its other parts. (3) Metabolic absorption: All cells can take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings. (4) Secretion: Certain cells, such as mucous gland cells, can synthesize new substances from substances they absorb and then secrete the new substances to serve as needed elsewhere.
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3 (5) Excretion: All cells can rid themselves of waste products resulting from the metabolic breakdown of nutrients (lysosomes contain enzymes that break down, or digest, large molecules, turning them into waste products that are released from the cell. (6) Respiration:
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This note was uploaded on 07/12/2011 for the course NURSING 000 taught by Professor Clark during the Spring '11 term at Alabama.

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NUR 305 test 1 A - 1 Notes for Test 1 A Acetylcholine is...

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