Note for test 2 A
Definition of Cancer: a tumor (malignant) is a tissue overgrowth in any area (independent of law
governing the rest of the body). Cancers are also called
new growth (this overgrowth
serves no purpose to the organism).
1-3 develop cancer within a lifetime, 1-4 that develop cancer will die from it
are usually well encapsulated and well differentiated, retain some normal tissue
structure, and do not invade the capsule, nor do they spread to regional lymph nodes or distant
locations (generally named according to the tissues from which they arise [where they come
from], and include the suffix "-oma"). These are NOT cancerous.
- found in fat cells
- found in smooth muscles
- found in smooth muscles of the uterus
- an uncommon benign tumor which characteristically forms mature cartilage. It is
found mostly in the small bones of the hand and/or feet, although it can also occur in long,
tubular bones, primarily the humorous, femur and ribs.
: within the bone (within the medullary cavity)
: on the surface of the bone
Characteristics of benign tumors from table 9-1: grow slowly, are microscopically well
differentiated with a low mitotic index, are well-differentiated; looks like the tissue from which it
arose, have a well-defined capsule, NOT invasive, and do NOT metastasize.
Characteristics of malignant tumors from 9-1: grow rapidly, are anaplastic and have a high
mitotic index, are poorly differentiated; does not look like the tissue from which it arose, are
NOT encapsulated, invade local structures and tissues, and spread distantly through bloodstream
are distinguished from benign tumors by more rapid growth rates and
specific microscopic alterations, including loss of differentiation; absence of normal tissue
organization; lack of a capsule; invasion into blood vessels, lymphatics, and surrounding
structures; and distant spread (metastasis). Named just like Benign tumors (look at workbook).
- the loss of differentiation, nuclear irregularities, and loss of normal tissue structure.
Cancers arising in epithelial tissue are called