{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

NUR 305 test 1 B - 1 Note for test 2 A Chapter 9 Definition...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Note for test 2 A Chapter 9 Definition of Cancer: a tumor (malignant) is a tissue overgrowth in any area (independent of law governing the rest of the body). Cancers are also called neoplasms, new growth (this overgrowth serves no purpose to the organism). 1-3 develop cancer within a lifetime, 1-4 that develop cancer will die from it Benign tumors are usually well encapsulated and well differentiated, retain some normal tissue structure, and do not invade the capsule, nor do they spread to regional lymph nodes or distant locations (generally named according to the tissues from which they arise [where they come from], and include the suffix "-oma"). These are NOT cancerous. Lipoma - found in fat cells Glioma - found in smooth muscles Leiomyoma - found in smooth muscles of the uterus Chondroma - an uncommon benign tumor which characteristically forms mature cartilage. It is found mostly in the small bones of the hand and/or feet, although it can also occur in long, tubular bones, primarily the humorous, femur and ribs. o enchondroma : within the bone (within the medullary cavity) o periosteal chondroma : on the surface of the bone Characteristics of benign tumors from table 9-1: grow slowly, are microscopically well differentiated with a low mitotic index, are well-differentiated; looks like the tissue from which it arose, have a well-defined capsule, NOT invasive, and do NOT metastasize. Characteristics of malignant tumors from 9-1: grow rapidly, are anaplastic and have a high mitotic index, are poorly differentiated; does not look like the tissue from which it arose, are NOT encapsulated, invade local structures and tissues, and spread distantly through bloodstream and lymphatics. Malignant Tumors are distinguished from benign tumors by more rapid growth rates and specific microscopic alterations, including loss of differentiation; absence of normal tissue organization; lack of a capsule; invasion into blood vessels, lymphatics, and surrounding structures; and distant spread (metastasis). Named just like Benign tumors (look at workbook). Anaplasia - the loss of differentiation, nuclear irregularities, and loss of normal tissue structure. Cancers arising in epithelial tissue are called carcinomas .
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 Cancers arising from ductal or glandular epithelium are named adenocarcinomas (malignant cancer arising from breast glandular tissue is a mammary adenocarcinoma). Cancers arising from connective tissue usually have the suffix sarcoma (malignant cancers of skeletal muscle are termed rhabdomyosarcomas) . Cancers of lymphatic tissue are lymphomas Cancers of blood-forming cells are leukemias. Carcinoma in situ: refers to preinvasive (hasn't invaded other tissue yet) epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin. These early stage tumors have not broken through basement membranes of the epithelium. Found in the cervix, skin, oral cavity, esophagus, and bronchus. In glandular epithelium, in situ lesions occur in the stomach, endometrium, breast, and large bowels.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}