NUR 305 test 4 B

NUR 305 test 4 B - 1 Notes for Test 4 B Sal ivation o Three...

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1 Notes for Test 4 B Salivation o Three pairs of salivary glands- (1) the submandibular, (2) sublingual, and (3) parotid glands. Secrete 1 L of salvia per day Salvia consists mostly of water with mucus, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, potassium, and salivary α -amylase (ptyalin), an enzyme that initiates carbohydrate digestion in the mouth and stomach. These glands are not regulated by any hormone Salvia has a pH of about 7.4 The pH of the mouth is more on the acidic side unless salvia is in there making it alkaline (pH needs to change). The mouth and the anus are the most contaminated orifices of the body (greatest number of bacterial cultures). The mouth releases salivary amylase to break down carbohydrates and starch. The swallow is the coordinated efforts of the cranial nerves 8, 9, and 10. o 8 th deals with hearing, Eustachian tube is in the mouth o Both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system control salivation. Esophageal Function o The esophagus is a hollow, muscular tube approximately 25 cm long that conducts substances from the oropharynx to the stomach. Swallowed food is moved to the stomach by peristalsis.
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2 o The upper third of the esophagus contains striated muscle (voluntary) that is directly innervated by motor neurons. Talk and eat at the same time and also breath Bad for bulimic and anorexic people (can make themselves throw up by sticking their finger in the esophagus). o The lower 2/3 contains smooth muscle (involuntary) that is innervated by preganglionic cholinergic fibers from the vagus nerve. The fibers are activated in a downward sequence and coordinated by the swallowing center in the medulla. The vagus nerve is the nerve that makes you vomit. o The oropharyngeal (voluntary) stage Food is segmented into a bolus by the tongue and forced posteriorly toward the pharynx. The superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx contracts so the food o A tear in the esophagus is called Mallory - Weiss tears Cardinal sign of anorexic and bulimic patients When eating the food would go out of the esophagus and into the heart and lungs and cause infection. CM of rupturing the esophagus: inflammation, chest pain, heart burn, bleeding (the blood drips down to the diaphragm because blood flows downhill), becomes harder to breath, diaphoresis, vomiting (vomiting blood- hematemesis), teeth are coated with blood. Take home message: esophagus is difficult to surgically repair, do whatever you can to prevent from rupturing. Enzymes released o Saliva Amylase is secreted by the salvia and pancreas.
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3 Cystic Fibrous (autosominal recessive) affects the saliva glands and the pancreas (affects all exocrine secretions).
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NUR 305 test 4 B - 1 Notes for Test 4 B Sal ivation o Three...

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