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1. What did Dr. Urey and his lab assistant Miller do and what results did they get? Dr. Urey and his lab assistant Miller experimented that what kind of environment would be needed for the origin of life. The experiment used water (H 2 O), methane (CH 4 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) and hydrogen H 2 . The chemicals were all sealed and placed in a glass tube with one flask half-full of liquid water and another flask containing a pair of electrodes. The liquid water was heated to add water vapor to the chemical mixture and the resulting gases were circulated around the apparatus. The flask with heated water represents water on the Earth's surface and the recycled water vapor is just as water evaporates from lakes and seas, before going into the atmosphere and forming into rain. Sparks were fired between the electrodes to simulate lightning storms through the water vapors, and then the vapors were cooled again so that the water could condense and trickle back into the first water flask in a continuous cycle. At the end, Miller and Urey observed, by analyzing the cooled water, that the carbon within the system was now in the form of organic compounds. 2 % of the carbon had formed amino acids, including 13 of the 21 that are used to make proteins in living cells, with glycine as the most abundant. 2. How did Dr. Ponnamperuma improve on this and what results did he get? Dr. Ponnamperuma used primordial soup with water. He used 24 grams of Sodium Chloride, 4 grams of Sodium Sulfate, 1 gram of potassium Bromide 1 Gram of Potassium Chloride, 9 grams of Calcium Chloride and 20 grams of Magnesium Chloride. He added these altogether and performed an experiment. Later on he concluded that energy makes chemical components, the building blocks of life, including Amino Acid, carbohydrates, and some components of DNA and RNA. 3. In the functional groups in Kiosk 9 (Macromolecules) provide the color that is used to illustrate the following atoms in the functional groups. Carbon - Black Oxygen - Red Hydrogen - White Nitrogen - Blue 4. What is the basic molecule that is linked together in a long chain to make a protein? Amino Acid 5. What are the two functional groups associated with a protein? 1. Amines NH 2 2. Carboxyl COOH 6. What is the most common functional group found in carbohydrates? Sugars and Polysaccharides.
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7 . How do we use the disaccharide sucrose? In sugarcane and sugar beets. 8 . What is the main difference in the two monosaccharides making up sucrose. Glucose and Fructose 9. Give the two uses of polysaccharides and give an example of each. 1. It reserves food in animal in the form of glycogen. 2. Makes up plants cell wall with the help of cellulose. Examples Glycogen, which is a polysaccharide of glucose. Cellulose and starch are also polysaccharides. 10.
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This note was uploaded on 07/11/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Maccartey during the Spring '11 term at George Fox.

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doc doc doc - 1. What did Dr. Urey and his lab assistant...

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