crystalhw3 - 1 Secondary research is the collection and...

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1. Secondary research is the collection and analysis of data originally collected to serve another purpose rather that the specific objectives of the firm and primary research is the collection and analysis of data for a specific research purpose through interviews, focus groups, surveys, observation, or experimentation. An example of secondary research is using data already collected by some other organization, such as governments, international institutions, service organizations, and etc. The Statiscal Yearbook produced by the UN is an example of this. Focus group research, a group of seven to ten knowledgeable people who are gathered together for a limited time thoroughly discuss a specific topic. When doing primary market research firms should hire local experts because they have a clear idea of what the population under study should be and where it is located deciding on the country or region to investigate. 2. Incoterms also known as international Commercial terms are series of international sales terms published by the International Chamber of commerce that are used when doing international commercial transaction. Letters of credit is a promise to pay. Banks issue letters of credit as a way to ensure sellers that they will get paid as long as they do what they’ve agreed to do. Importers and exporters might use letters of credit to protect themselves. The bank plays as uninterested party between buyer and seller. Bills of lading are documents signed by the carrier (transporter of goods) and issued to a cosigner (the shipper of goods) that evidences the receipt of goods for shipment to be specified designation and person. 3. Countertrade means exchanging goods or services which are paid for, in whole or part, with other goods or services, rather than with money. An example of countertrade is Pepsi/USSR trade whereby Pepsi-cola delivers syrup that is paid for with Stolichnaya vodka. Pepsi has the marketing rights of all Stolichnaya vodka. Pepsi has the marketing rights of all Stolichnaya vodka in US (barternews.com). Lack of “hard” currency; desire for bilateral trade relations, a mode of entering a foreign market. The cons of countertrade are difficulties in valuing, marketing, and reselling traded assets, there may be problems warehousing and tracking assets.
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4. Liner Service offers regularly scheduled passage on established routes. The most common types are conventional (break-bulk) cargo vessels, container ships, and roll- on-roll-off vessels. Conventional cargo vessels are useful for oversized and unusual cargos but may be less efficient in their port operations. Container ships carry standardized containers that greatly facilitate the loading and unloading of cargo and intermodal transfers. Roll-on-roll-off (RORO) vessels are essentially oceangoing ferries. Trucks can drive onto built-in ramps and roll off at the destination. LASH vessels (lighter abroad ship)is similar to the RORO, it consist of barges stored on the ship and lowered at the point of destination. Mega ships are extremely large cruise
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