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Unformatted text preview: C 6' 10/21/2010 Blackboard Learning System --3- dSNA=§10uble-stranded nucleic acid _ .dsDNA= DNA-DNA DOilridlCCi‘les A0019 C CH burlll’lébnohsrmndflck) .dSRNA = RNA-'RNA b) The central dogma (Figure 10.1) pair! .......1. Information transfer in cells: DNA nrakes RNA makes protein Replication Transcription Translation m DNA rmkes DNA DNA makes RNA RNA makes protein 3 to oft? template-directed termlate»directed genetic code M. synthesis synthesis 9 (base pairing) (base pairing) mQNH ., rRNPr, 5i riZNFl RNA polymerase ribosomes (i- tRNAS) RNH $3me c) Classes of RNA m 0 -C°d'"9 RNATlv {Domain am‘noaci it 2 ° . mRNA = messenger RNA (informational) 96 TOO!) ‘ C encoding RNA .a. rRNA = ribosomal RNA (structuraVcatalytlc) .tRNA = transfer RNA (structural) . other (atiuctural/cataiytic/guid'e/lrecguiatoryW1 ) .snRNA 2: snail nuclear RNA 9 ll ' .snoRNA = small nucleolar RNA Q/I’l Wmmlficafi Ch of rRNA, 61C .=.miRNA rricro RNA (Bartel, 2004. Cell 115 81 297) r( gummy) ofmi an DNA @WSW irmlah’on 4) Chargaff‘s Rules (Table 10.1) .....a) [A] — [T] in) [G] = [C] c) [A] + [G] = [C] + [T], or [purines] = [pyrimidines] d) No consistent equality is observed for the other four possible combinations: ..1. [A] not: [G], [T] not: [C], [A] not= [C], [T] not- [G] 5) Watson-Crick (WC) Base Pails (Figure 10.16) a) A, C, G, and T are assumed to be . un-Ionized (neutral) . in the kato and amino forrrs ..b) A=T (2 H-bonds) and s=c (3 H-bonds): complementary base pairs . H-bonding provides specificity . identical geometry (C1‘-C1‘ distance and giycosidlc angles) ) ther eight possible con‘binatlons cannot pair “DWI! ..1. A not= G, C not: T, A not= C, G not: T ..2. A not: A, G not= G, C not- C, T not= T 5) Watson-Crick Double Helix (Figure 10.15) Summits cinwg For“ a) Fiber diffraction of DNA irmlies a helical structure S .....1 Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins (130 ...ugaedu/u/cobaitMainFramedowebcc ZPOla 5W 5/7 . RNA/DNA heteroduplex=RNA-DNA KNH- DNF} Oi form rlm‘rth base, lO-Li 517/171”) 10/21/2010 Blackboard [learning System .....b) Conviementary, antiparailei, double helix , ‘ .. .1. one strand is Watson, the other is Crick "- c) Replication b _ w ‘ > Figure 10.18) “it has not eécaded notice not specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material."watson, J. D. and Crick, F. H. C. (1953) Nature 171: 737-738. h : w n ur n 0 i .h rri . replication is semi-conservative .....d) Shorthand notations a. gunman intimated: §I__.____.__—————— 3' 5. _ii. mm understand: RNA 7) Transcription ls Ternpiate— —Directed (Watson Cnck Base Pairing) $2 ..... ammo from so: 3* g .b] RNA polymerase proceeds 5' to 3‘ relative to coding strand 3176\nd.” 0mm” re W‘ ‘0“ DJ”. 3‘ to 5‘ relative to ten-plate strand SWCUHVAVIW MVA 09 .c) Sequence is Identical to coding strand except that T is replaced by U .d) X-ray structure of RNA polymerase elongation complex Vassiyev et al. 2007 Nature 448: 157-162 (RasMol 2051) a. Therrros therrnophlius agfio‘co core RNA polymerase b. coding strand + template strand + RNA transcript Vassiyev et al. 2007 Nature 448: 163-168 (RasMol 205)) ...a. Therrms thermophllus aqiifl'm core RNA polymerase b. coding strand + template strand + RNA transcript c. AMPCPP ~ , which strand? er WM 8) Messenger RNA (Handout CG Gene Organization) VII—(Mm fl Oh .....a) Prokaryotlc (Figure 10.20) M .1. monocistronlc or polyclstronic (one or more proteins/mRNA) 5'- 3 0y) mmnon .2. primary transcript - mature mRNA . .3. transcript on and translation are co med? . ) Eukaryotic (Figure 10. 20) .1. rrpnoclstronlc (one protein/mRNA) . , mm‘mafibn Wmclear RNA) 5. capping at 5‘ end (7M2—GS‘ppp5‘A ----------------- OH 3) b. polyadenylation at 3‘ and maturation of hnRNA to mature mRNA ...a. removal of intervening sequences (introns)ShflNe ...b. largely posttranscriptidnai .5. lntervenlng sequences (introns) are common “OHS? a. Nexons and N-l introns _ “ ' M . ' . ~ b. Introns removed by splicing WW 1 0‘ CCOTC ranscriptlon and translation are uncoupled a. transcription (and processing) occur In the nucleus b. translation occurs in tire cytoplasm .c) Translation (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) JCVJ‘SA' 93f? .1. ribosome moves 5' to 3' along the n‘RNA 13' 010' .2. polypeptide is synthesized from N to C te ' s EUW ’ .d) Genetic code (Handout CG Genetic Codes) 8 - 1 code Is triplet (3 nucleotides = 1 codonfirffiA CW (- NHZ ...a. 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 different codons (for 20 arrllno acids) ‘l’ code is unarrbiguous (every codon has a single meaning) 3. code is deoenerate (many codons have the same meaning) ...uga.edn/...lcobaltMainFrameolowebcl 6/7 C N) Oggnv‘fim new mail. .5» (MA? ...
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