BSE transmission in absence of prion

BSE transmission in absence of prion - phosphorylation by...

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phosphorylation by JNK regulates the half - life of c - Jun. The regulatory process described here likely contributes to the efficient activation of target genes after exposure of cells to growth factors, stress, or other inducers of c - Jun activity. Such an effect might be com - pounded by a similar regulation of the Jun partner molecule, c - Fos, which also exhibits phosphorylation - dependent changes of its half - life ( 16 ). REFERENCES AND NOTES ___________________________ 1. V. J. Palombella, O. J. Rando, A. L. Goldberg, T. Maniatis, Cell 78 , 773 (1994). 2. M. Glotzer, A. M. Murray, M. W. Kirschner, Nature 349 , 132 (1991). 3. A. Isaksson, A. M. Musti, D. Bohmann, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1288 , 21 (1996). 4. S. Jentsch and S. Schlenker, Cell 82 , 881 (1995). 5. M. Hochstrasser, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 7 , 215 (1995). 6. M. Treier, L. M. Staszewski, D. Bohmann, Cell 78 , 787 (1994). 7. R. Treisman, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8 , 205 (1996). 8. M. Treier and D. Bohmann, in Protein Phosphoryl- ation , F. Marks, Ed. (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1996), pp. 297–327. 9. F. A. Peverali et al. , EMBO. J. 15 , 3943 (1996). 10. B. Binetruy, T. Smeal, M. Karin, Nature 351 , 122 (1991). 11. A. G. Papavassiliou, M. Treier, D. Bohmann, EMBO J. 14 , 2014 (1995). 12. B. J. Pulverer, J. M. Kyriakis, J. Aruch, E. Nikolakaki, J. R. Woodgett, Nature 353 , 670 (1991). 13. B. De ´ rijard et al. , Cell 76 , 1025 (1994). 14. O. A. Coso et al. , ibid. 81 , 1137 (1995). 15. M. Treier, D. Bohmann, M. Mlodzik, ibid. 83 , 753 (1995). 16. K. Okazaki and N. Sagata, EMBO J. 14 , 5048 (1995). 17. F. L. Graham and A. J. van der Eb, Virology 52 , 456 (1973). 18. JNK1 and Cdc42 L61 expression vectors have been described ( 14 ). NIH 3T3 cells were transiently trans- fected by calcium phosphate coprecipitation ( 17 ). Purification of c-Jun–ubiquitin conjugates and pro- tein immunoblot analysis were done as described ( 6 ). Ubiquitination assays were performed in HeLa or in NIH 3T3 cells with either His 6 -tagged or HA- tagged c-Jun expression vectors with essentially identical results (compare Figs. 1 and 2). 19. His 6 -tagged c-Jun expression vectors have been de- scribed ( 6 ). c-Jun Ala -His 6 and c-Jun Asp -His 6 eukaryotic expression vectors were generated as described for His 6 -tagged wild-type c-Jun ( 11 ). The c-Jun Ala mutant contains alanine residues in place of serines or threo- nines at position 58, 62, 63, 73, 89, 90, 91, 93, and 95; c-Jun Asp contains aspartic acid residues in place of the serines and threonines at position 58, 62, 63, 73, 91, and 93. The hemagglutinin (HA)–tagged ubiquitin eu- karyotic expression vector, Hela thymidine kinase–neg- ative ( TK 2 ) cell transfections, purification of Jun-ubiq- uitin conjugates, and immunoblot analysis were as de- scribed ( 6 ). 20. The cytomegalovirus-based expression vectors for
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BSE transmission in absence of prion - phosphorylation by...

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