Principles of Biomolecular Science.edited.docx - Principles of Biomolecular Science Student\u2019s Name Course Instructor Institutional Affiliation

Principles of Biomolecular Science.edited.docx - Principles...

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Principles of Biomolecular Science Student’s Name: Course: Instructor: Institutional Affiliation: Submission Date:
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PRINCIPLES OF BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCE 2 Explain the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis Our biological characteristics are unique and differ from those of our friends, family members, and even our siblings. The reason is, our DNA is inimitable. DNA is the primary genetic material contained in our cells and that of all the living organisms. This genetic material is used to create proteins during a biological process call protein synthesis. During this process, the coded messages in the DNA are converted into important protein molecules that carry our distinct biological characteristics. The process of protein formation involves several steps. The first step is the transcription during which DNA is used to form a messenger called RNA or simply mRNA. This RNA is the molecules that are responsible for carrying the coded DNA messages that will be used in the creation of protein molecules. in this step, the structure of molecules in DNA distinguishes the structure of molecules in mRNA due to the reciprocal structure matching. Hence, transcription moves the set subtleties of DNA into the arrangement of molecules in mRNA. For instance, if a triad of DNA molecule is AGG, which translates the amino acid serine, the integral matched triad of molecules in mRNA is UCC. One distinguishing factor between these two molecules, DNA and RNA, is that DNA is a binary beached nucleic acid formed of deoxyribose sugar while RNA is just a single molecule formed of the ribose sugar. The basis under this process, therefore, is that DNA stores the information for the genetic make-up while RNA carries that information in three bases each base specifying the exact amino acid to be formed. The transcription process in cells takes place in the nucleus.
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PRINCIPLES OF BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCE 3 During this process, a segment of DNA encrypting a protein, known as a gene, is changed over into a layout structure referred to as message RNA. This transformation is completed by proteins called RNA polymerases, in the cell's nucleus. In some of the organisms, this message RNA (mRNA) is at first created in an untimely structure and is referred to as a pre-mRNA which experiences- transcriptional adjustments to produce a well-developed mRNA. The developed or mature mRNA is sent out from the nucleus using nucleic openings to the cytoplasm of the cell for interpretation to happen. During the translation process, the mRNA is internalized by ribosomes which utilize the nucleotide arrangement of the mRNA to decide the grouping of amino acids. The ribosomes catalyze the development of covalent peptide ties between the encoded amino acids to frame a polypeptide series.
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