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Galloway et al 2008 - Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle...

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DOI: 10.1126/science.1136674 , 889 (2008); 320 Science et al. James N. Galloway, Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent www.sciencemag.org (this information is current as of August 25, 2008 ): The following resources related to this article are available online at http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5878/889 version of this article at: including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online Updated information and services, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5878/889/DC1 can be found at: Supporting Online Material found at: can be related to this article A list of selected additional articles on the Science Web sites http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5878/889#related-content http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5878/889#otherarticles , 5 of which can be accessed for free: cites 33 articles This article 4 article(s) on the ISI Web of Science. cited by This article has been http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/320/5878/889#otherarticles 3 articles hosted by HighWire Press; see: cited by This article has been http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/collection/atmos Atmospheric Science : subject collections This article appears in the following http://www.sciencemag.org/about/permissions.dtl in whole or in part can be found at: this article permission to reproduce of this article or about obtaining reprints Information about obtaining registered trademark of AAAS. is a Science 2008 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Copyright American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by the Science on August 25, 2008 www.sciencemag.org Downloaded from
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Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions James N. Galloway, 1 * Alan R. Townsend, 2 Jan Willem Erisman, 3 Mateete Bekunda, 4 Zucong Cai, 5 John R. Freney, 6 Luiz A. Martinelli, 7 Sybil P. Seitzinger, 8 Mark A. Sutton 9 Humans continue to transform the global nitrogen cycle at a record pace, reflecting an increased combustion of fossil fuels, growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, and pervasive inefficiencies in its use. Much anthropogenic nitrogen is lost to air, water, and land to cause a cascade of environmental and human health problems. Simultaneously, food production in some parts of the world is nitrogen-deficient, highlighting inequities in the distribution of nitrogen- containing fertilizers. Optimizing the need for a key human resource while minimizing its negative consequences requires an integrated interdisciplinary approach and the development of strategies to decrease nitrogen-containing waste. O ur understanding of reactive nitrogen (Nr) ( 1 ) and the N cycle has shifted from how to promote food production to a realization that agricultural intensification dam- ages environmental systems ( 2 ). Since 1970, world population has increased by 78% and re- active nitrogen creation has increased by 120%.
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