lecture_9_SAC_CarbonCycleII

lecture_9_SAC_CarbonCycleII - CarbonCycle:PartII...

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Carbon Cycle: Part II Carbon Cycle: Part II Silvia 2/2/10 NPP in oceans Controls over NPP Carbon exchange in oceans Terrestrial sources of carbon:     Soil Respiration     Decomposition of organic matter     Methanogenesis  Ecosystem Carbon balance  Global Carbon Cycle
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Photosynthesis Photosynthesis 6 C0 2  + 6H 2 O          C 6 H 12 0 6   + 6 O 2    oxidized                   Reduced  Low energy             High energy
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Ways to measure NPP Terrestrial systems 1. Harvests of biomass over time 2.  Measurement of basal area increase+  litterfall production (+other measurable  biomass increases) 3. Satellite measurements of “greenness”  4. Eddy covariance tower measurements of  “net accumulation of carbon in the EE”
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Roughly HALF of the earth’s     photosynthesis occurs in the    ocean Most of this is performed by phytoplankton Most of NPP occurs on coastal regions  and regions of upwelling but because the  open ocean is so large, it still accounts for  ~80% of oceans production NPP  Aquatic systems http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Experiments/ICE/Channel_Islands/Images/ice_phytoplankt on.jpg
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Global NPP  Oceans Standard product are based on MODIS chlorophyll and temperature data, SeaWiFS PAR, and  estimates of euphotic zone depth from a model developed by Morel and Berthon (1989) and based  on chlorophyll concentration. Monthly global ocean production for November 2002 was  3.68 Pg  (1 Pg  = 10**15 g.)
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 Ways to measure NPP  Aquatic systems 1. variations in oxygen concentration within a sealed bottle (developed by Gaarder and Gran 1927) 2. incorporation of inorganic carbon 14 C in the form of sodium carbonate into organic matter (Steeman- Nielsen 1951). 3. Stable isotopes of Oxygen ( 16 O, 18 O and 17 O)   Bender et al. 1987; Luz and Barkan 2000). 4. fluorescence kinetics (technique still a research topic) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_production
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Global NPP Global NPP http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/socec/bilder/NPP0_600.png Which factors determine NPP??
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Multiple factors influence NPP Light Temperature Water Nutrients Disturbance Read pages 469-474
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Biome differences in NPP Biome differences in NPP
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Biome Differences in NPP (Terrestrial) Length of the growing season is the major factor that explains biome differences in NPP Differences in leaf area account for most of the variation in biome NPP within a growing season Leaf area, in turn, is determined by climate, soil resources, and time since disturbance Disturbance substantially modifies the relationship between NPP and climate
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Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle
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Carbon exchange in oceans Carbon exchange in oceans
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Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle
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lecture_9_SAC_CarbonCycleII - CarbonCycle:PartII...

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