PSYCH 2134 FINAL EXAM REVIEW.docx - PSYCH 2134 FINAL EXAM REVIEW(40 SECTION 5.1 ANATOMNY OF WORDS Words are Labels for Concepts Word a minimal unit of

PSYCH 2134 FINAL EXAM REVIEW.docx - PSYCH 2134 FINAL EXAM...

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PSYCH 2134 FINAL EXAM REVIEW (40%) SECTION 5.1: ANATOMNY OF WORDS Words are Labels for Concepts Word : a minimal unit of meaningful speech that can stand alone C oncept : Representation of classes of objects (spaghetti and meatballs) o Don’t always need a label Tip of the tongue: Suggests that word retrieval works in stages + word form and meaning can be accessed independently Duality of words: o Phonological form (how it sounds) o Semantic representation (The concept) Types of Words Content words: o Labels for concepts o Aka open-class words o We continue to learn these all the time o New content words are introduced and old content words are discarded from languages continuously o Form the bulk of a language’s vocabulary Function words: o Limited in number o Remain stable across generations and centuries o Aka closed-class words o Serve grammatical purposes Shapeshifters Words change their shape depending on the context they're used in o Nouns depend on singular or plural o Verbs shape for past or present Lemma: Most basic form of a word (run) Lexeme All forms a word can take (runs ran running) Phonology of Word Forms words are composed of a string of phonemes organized into one or more syllables Onset = initial consonant of a syllable Phonotactic rules: set of rules for combining phonemes into sequences to form words Diagraph: a combination of two letters representing one sound as in ph and ey Rime: following the onset, consisting of two parts the nucleus and the coda Nucleus o The nucleus is the vowel part of a syllable. o A syllable MUST have a nucleus. (it does not need an onset or a coda). o The nucleus follows the onset consonant (if there is one). o When a syllable has an onset consonant, the nucleus (and optional coda) form/s the rime of a syllable. Coda
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o The coda is the consonant at the end of a syllable o The coda is optional and need not be part of a syllable o The coda follows the nucleus o The nucleus and coda together form the “rime” of a syllable Words as Symbols Languages use different words to represent concepts Words are arbitrary sound symbols of the concepts they represent symbol grounding problem: the question of where the meaning of a symbol comes from. symbols are acquired by putting them in a context or with other words we already know Chinese Room argument: why meaning cannot arise solely from the relationships among symbols. (you can memorize a Chinese dictionary and not know what any of the words say) Semantic primes set of innately meaningful concepts that are used to define all other concepts Embodied representation : a symbol that is understood in terms of the perceptual and motor experiences it evokes (like an apple is understood w smell shape texture taste) Sounds Symbolism Arbitrariness of the sign: Observation that the sound of a word gives virtually no information about its meaning.
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