ch03 - Chapter 3: Processes Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne...

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Chapter 3: Processes
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3.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Chapter 3: Processes Process Concept Process Scheduling Operations on Processes Interprocess Communication Examples of IPC Systems Communication in Client-Server Systems
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3.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Objectives To introduce the notion of a process -- a program in execution, which forms the basis of all computation To describe the various features of processes, including scheduling, creation and termination, and communication To describe communication in client-server systems
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3.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Process Concept An operating system executes a variety of programs: Batch system – jobs Time-shared systems – user programs or tasks Textbook uses the terms job and process almost interchangeably Process – a program in execution; process execution must progress in sequential fashion A process includes: program counter stack data section
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3.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Process in Memory
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3.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Process State As a process executes, it changes state new : The process is being created running : Instructions are being executed waiting : The process is waiting for some event to occur ready : The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor terminated : The process has finished execution
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3.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Diagram of Process State
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3.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Process Control Block (PCB) Information associated with each process Process state Program counter CPU registers CPU scheduling information Memory-management information Accounting information I/O status information
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3.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Process Control Block (PCB)
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3.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 CPU Switch From Process to Process
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3.11 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Process Scheduling Queues Job queue – set of all processes in the system Ready queue – set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute Device queues – set of processes waiting for an I/O device Processes migrate among the various queues
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3.12 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues
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3.13 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Representation of Process Scheduling
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3.14 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Schedulers Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) – selects which processes should be brought into the ready queue Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) – selects which process should be executed next and allocates CPU
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3.15 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Addition of Medium Term Scheduling
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3.16 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Schedulers (Cont) Short-term scheduler is invoked very frequently (milliseconds) (must be fast) Long-term scheduler is invoked very infrequently (seconds,
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ch03 - Chapter 3: Processes Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne...

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