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Unformatted text preview: ENU 4191 Power Cycles & Balance of Plant September 8, 2010 Outline I Rankine Cycles I Brayton Cycles I Heat exchangers, including steam generators Ideal, Simple Rankine Cycle It is usual to number the thermodynamic states in a system in the direction of flow. Flow splits complicate the numbering. State 1 can be assigned to be any state convenient to starting. Exit conditions of the steam generator usually saturated steam at a given pressure ( P 1 given, x 1 = 1). h 1 = h g ( P 1 ), s 1 = s g ( P 1 ), T 1 = T sat ( P 1 ). Outside of the (LWR) nuclear industry, state 1 is generally superheated, so all properties are f ( P 1 , T 1 ). (Recommendation: T&Ks superheated steam tables are essentially nonexistent. Whites are nonexistent Use a thermo book or TK Solver or EES or whatever better tables you have available.) Ideal, Simple Rankine Cycle (2) State 2 is the exit of the turbine. Ideal cycle implies an isentropic turbine, so s 2 = s 1 . P 2 = P 3 (the condenser pressure), generally given. P 2 and s 2 are sufficient to define a thermodynamic state, generally in the vapor dome. Any x 2 less than 0.9 and certainly any less than 0.85 is problematic (consider what this flow would look like). Outside of the nuclear industry, state 2 is sometimes still (slightly) superheated. Ideal, Simple Rankine Cycle (3) State 3 is the exit of the condenser. P 3 = P 2 (given in the problem, usually; otherwise T 3 given). x 3 = 0 (saturated liquid). The flow from the condenser heads directly to a pump, so a quality of larger than zero is problematic. Efficiency is enhanced by P 3 (and T 3 ) being low, but there are two limits: I Very low pressures are challenging to maintain I T 3 must be higher than ultimate heat sink to ensure heat transfer in the correct direction. Ideal, Simple Rankine Cycle (4) State 4 is the exit of the pump and entrance to the steam generator. s 4 = s 3 , P 4 = P 1 . State 4 will be a subcooled liquid . Such tables are often sparse, even in good thermo books. A good approximation for h 4 is: h 4 h 3 + vol 3 ( P 4 P 3 ) (1) Real, Simple Rankine Cycle Actual pumps and turbines operate at efficiencies below 100% ( i.e. , there are losses there)....
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This note was uploaded on 07/14/2011 for the course ENU 4133 taught by Professor Schubring during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.
 Spring '11
 Schubring

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