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Unformatted text preview: Journal of Health Communication , Volume 6, pp. 11 29, 2001 Copyright 2001 Taylor & Francis 1081-0730/01 $12.00 1 .00 Articles Measuring Exposure to Pro- and Anti-tobacco Marketing Among Adolescents : Intercorrelations Among Measures and Associations W ith Smoking Status JE N N IF E R B . U N G E R T E S S B O L E Y C R U Z D A R L E E N S C H U ST E R University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles, California, USA JU N E A . F L O R A Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention Stanford, California, USA C . A N D E R SO N J O H N SO N University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles, California, USA Exposure to tobacco- related marketing has been implicated as one of the risk factors for tobacco use among adolescents . However , tobacco- related marketing exposure has been measured in dierent ways in dierent studies , including per- ceived pervasiveness , receptivity , recognition , recall , and aect . It is not known whether these measures represent one or more underlying constructs and how these underlying constructs are associated with adolescent smoking status . T his study analyzed data from 5 , 870 eighth- grade students in California , collected in 1996 1997 as part of the Independent Evaluation of the California T obacco Control , Prevention , and Education Program . An exploratory factor analysis of multiple measures of tobacco- related marketing exposure revealed four distinct factors : per- ceived pervasiveness of protobacco marketing , perceived pervasiveness of anti- tobacco marketing , recognition of specic antitobacco advertisements , and receptivity to protobacco marketing . Receptivity to protobacco marketing showed the strongest association with smoking status ; higher levels of receptivity were Collection of the data described in this article was supported by a contract from the California Department of Health Services, Tobacco Control Section (Contract 95-222998). Data analysis and manu- script preparation were supported by funds from the California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program, Grant 7KT-0006. The analyses, interpretations, and conclusions are those of the authors, not the California Department of Health Services. Address correspondence to Jennifer B. Unger, Ph.D., Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California School of Medicine, 1540 Alcazar St., CHP 207, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9008. 11 12 J . B . Unger et al . associated with higher levels of smoking . T wo measures of exposure to antitobacco marketing ( perceived pervasiveness of antitobacco marketing and recognition of spe- cic antitobacco ads ) were highest among established smokers and lowest among susceptible nonsmokers . T he same pattern was evident for perceived pervasiveness of protobacco marketing . Results suggest that exposure to tobacco- related market- ing is a multidimensional construct , and each dimension may have a unique contri- bution...
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