A New Nonexercise-Based V
˙
O
2max
Equation
for Aerobically Trained Females
MOH H. MALEK
1
, TERRY J. HOUSH
1
, DALE E. BERGER
2
, JARED W. COBURN
1
, and TRAVIS W. BECK
1
1
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Lincoln,
NE; and
2
Claremont Graduate University, Department of Psychology, Claremont, CA
ABSTRACT
MALEK, M. H., T. J. HOUSH, D. E. BERGER, J. W. COBURN, and T. W. BECK. A New Nonexercise-Based V
˙
O
2max
Equation for
Aerobically Trained Females.
Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.
, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp. 1804–1810, 2004.
Purpose:
The purposes of the present
study were to (a) modify previously published V
˙
O
2max
equations using the constant error (CE) values for aerobically trained females,
(b) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating V
˙
O
2max
in aerobically trained females, (c) derive
a new nonexercise-based equation for estimating V
˙
O
2max
in aerobically trained females if the modified equations are found to be
inaccurate, and (d) cross-validate the new V
˙
O
2max
equation using the PRESS statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained
females.
Methods:
A total of 115 aerobically trained females (mean
6
SD: age
5
38.5
6
9.4 yr) performed a maximal incremental
test on a cycle ergometer to determine actual V
˙
O
2max
. The predicted V
˙
O
2max
values from nine published equations were compared with
actual V
˙
O
2max
by examining the CE, standard error of estimate (SEE), validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE).
Results:
Cross-validation of the modified nonexercise-based equations on a random subsample of 50 subjects resulted in a %TE
$
13% of the
mean of actual V
˙
O
2max
. Therefore, the following nonexercise-based V
˙
O
2max
equation was derived on a random subsample of 80
subjects: V
˙
O
2max
(mL·min
2
1
)
5
18.528 (weight in kg)
1
11.993 (height in cm)
2
17.197(age in yr)
1
23.522 (h·wk
2
1
of training)
1
62.118 (intensity of training using the Borg 6–20)
1
278.262 (natural log of years of training)
2
1375.878 (R
5
0.83, R
2
adjusted
5
0.67, and SEE
5
259 mL·min
2
1
). Cross-validation of this equation on the remaining sample of 35 subjects resulted in a %TE of
10%.
Conclusions:
The nonexercise equation presented here is recommended over previously published equations for estimating
V
˙
O
2max
in aerobically trained females.
Key Words:
AEROBIC POWER REFERENCE VALUES, CARDIORESPIRATORY FIT-
NESS, HIERARCHICAL LINEAR REGRESSION, MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE, MAXIMUM CYCLE ERGOMETRY, PRE-
DICTION MODEL
T
he measure of maximal oxygen uptake (V
˙
O
2max
)is
used for many purposes including diagnostic tests,
quantifying training intensity for aerobic exercise
prescription, monitoring the effects of aerobic training pro-
grams, and classifying individuals for health risk (2,3).
Typically, direct determination of V